20th Engineer Brigade | Wikipedia audio article

The 20th Engineer Brigade is a combat engineer
brigade assigned to the XVIII Airborne Corps of the United States Army stationed at Fort
Bragg, North Carolina. Although the brigade was identified as an airborne unit, not all
of its subordinate units were airborne qualified—despite the airborne tab as part of the unit patch.
Soldiers of the 20th Engineer Brigade provide various supportive duties to other Army units,
including construction, engineering, and mechanical work on other Army projects.
Though its predecessor units have lineage that dates back before the American Civil
War, the formation was not formally designated as the 20th Engineer Brigade until its activation
on 16 August 1950, at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Deploying overseas in November 1952, it supported
construction projects in southwestern France until its return to the US on 10 September
1954. From then until its inactivation on 12 December 1958, it provided support to XVIII
Airborne Corps. Reactivated on 1 May 1967, at Fort Bragg,
the brigade deployed to Vietnam where it supported American forces for several years and a dozen
campaigns. The brigade was deactivated on 20 September 1971, as American forces withdrew
from the country.Reactivated as an airborne brigade on 21 June 1974 at Fort Bragg, NC,
the unit has since seen numerous overseas tours, including to Kuwait during the Gulf
war, Kosovo, Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom, and Iraq during Operation
Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn. It has also independently conducted various humanitarian
missions in the United States and in other nations throughout the world.==Organization==
The 20th Engineer Brigade currently consists of five engineer battalions headquartered
throughout the eastern United States. The Brigade Headquarters and Headquarters Company
(HHC) as well as the 27th Engineer Battalion are headquartered at Fort Bragg, North Carolina
while the 19th Engineer Battalion (Construction Effects) is located at Fort Knox, Kentucky.
The 46th Engineer Battalion is located at Fort Polk, LA and the 92nd Engineer Battalion
is located at Fort Stewart, Georgia. The 307th Engineer Battalion, formerly assigned
to the 82d Airborne Division, was reactivated effective 16 September 2010 by reflagging
the existing 37th Engineer Battalion. In 2014 the 307th was transferred to the 3d Brigade
Combat Team of the 82nd Airborne Division.The insignia was originally authorized on 30 June
1967. It was amended on 14 January 1975 to add the blue and white “Airborne” tab. The
tab is part of the unit insignia and does not indicate whether an individual soldier
is Airborne-qualified. Parachute wings on an individual soldier indicate Airborne-qualification.
While the brigade headquarters was on jump status, some subordinate elements were not.
On 16 September 2009, the brigade’s Airborne status was terminated and the “Airborne” tab
on the brigade’s shoulder sleeve insignia was removed.==History=====
Lineage===The lineage and honors of the 20th Engineer
Brigade date back to the American Civil War. First designated as the Battalion of Engineers
on 3 August 1861, the battalion participated in 10 campaigns during the Civil War. Since
that time, unit designations have changed many times as predecessors of the 20th Engineer
Brigade have served in the Spanish–American War, the Philippine–American War, the Mexican
Expedition, World War I and World War II. Though it was not officially designated as
the 20th Engineer Brigade during all of these wars, the Brigade received campaign participation
credit for all of these campaigns, and has numerous campaign streamers for what its previous
incarnations did during these conflicts. On 16 August 1950 the brigade was first designated
as the 20th Engineer Brigade and activated at Camp Leonard Wood, Missouri. It deployed
overseas to France in November 1952 and established headquarters in Croix Chapeau. Comprising
two battalions and six separate companies, the brigade provided engineer construction
support to the Base Section of the European COMMZ in southwestern France. In August 1954,
it redeployed back to the United States and was activated at Fort Bragg, North Carolina,
on 10 September 1954. From that time until its inactivation on 12 December 1958, the
brigade provided engineer support to the XVIII Airborne Corps.===Vietnam War and aftermath===
In response to the buildup of U.S. forces in the Republic of Vietnam, the brigade headquarters
was reactivated 1 May 1967, at Fort Bragg and deployed to Vietnam in August 1967. During
the Vietnam War, the brigade numbered over 13,000 officers and enlisted men organized
into three engineer groups, with 14 battalions and 31 separate companies and detachments.
One of these soldiers, Al Gore, would later become Vice President of the United States. The brigade provided all non-divisional engineer
support in Military Regions III and IV during eleven campaigns. Units cleared more than
one-half million acres (2,000 km²) of jungle, paved 500 kilometers of highway, and constructed
bridges totaling more than six miles (10 km) in length. As American forces were withdrawing
from Vietnam, the brigade was inactivated 20 September 1971.As the organization of the
Army changed following Vietnam, the 20th Engineer Brigade was again reactivated at Fort Bragg,
North Carolina as an airborne brigade on 21 June 1974. Assigned as a subordinate command
of the XVIII Airborne Corps, which comprised one airborne combat engineer battalion, a
heavy construction battalion and four separate companies. Additionally, the 283rd Engineer
Detachment (Terrain Analysis) provided terrain intelligence needs of the brigade’s mission.
Since that time the brigade and its subordinate units supported the XVIII Airborne Corps,
fulfilling critical combat engineer, construction, topographic, and bridging missions.The brigade
participated in the recovery efforts following the Great Lakes Blizzard of 1977. Over 300
members of the unit were dispatched to New York State to help with recovery efforts.
As requirements and the engineer force structure changed, the brigade inactivated the 548th
combat heavy battalion in 1987 and activated the 37th combat airborne battalion. In 1989,
the 30th Engineer Battalion (Topographic) was added to the brigade. Over the years,
the brigade has provided engineer support to XVIII Airborne Corps and other Army commands.
In addition to training, it has deployed in support of operations across the entire spectrum
of conflict from disaster relief to combat operations.===Gulf War===The brigade was called to support the multinational
response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990. The brigade grew to a 7,700
soldier force composed of three groups, ten battalions, four separate companies, and eight
detachments in support of XVIII Airborne Corps during Operations Desert Shield and Desert
Storm. The brigade completed 1,500 combat heavy battalions equivalent days of work constructing
roads, airfields, heliports, ammunition/fuel/water storage points, life support areas and forward
landing strips, distributed over ten million maps, trained over 5,000 coalition engineers,
and supported the French attack on Assalman airfield. During follow-on missions the brigade
destroyed over 6,000 enemy bunkers and one million tons of munitions.After the Gulf War,
elements of the brigade were dispatched to Haiti on a humanitarian mission. The 20th
Engineer Brigade was assigned to construct base camps, improve the Haitian infrastructure,
participate in humanitarian service projects, and assist with the reestablishment of public
services, with a goal of improving overall quality of life within the country.Since 11
September 2001, it has participated in repeated operations in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq.===First Iraq tour===In November 2004 the brigade headquarters
deployed to Camp Victory, Iraq in support of OIF 04-06. The brigade grew to a size of
6,100 personnel in of three brigade headquarters companies, seven battalions, six separate
companies and nine detachments. The brigade served as the Multi-National Corps – Iraq
corps-level engineer headquarters for all echelon-above-division engineers in Iraq,
providing command and control for general support combat and construction engineer missions
across the country. During its deployment, the 20th Engineer Brigade patrolled 57,950
kilometers of roads for Improvised Explosive Devices, expanded 14 bases in support of the
MNC-I basing plan; emplaced or maintained 16 bridges; expanded detention capacity for
6,000 detainees; trained over 53,000 coalition soldiers on explosives hazards awareness;
reduced over 11,000 caches and over 80,000 tons of explosive munitions. Other missions
included repair of an airfield known as “Key West” by light equipment elements, support
of the Long Range Surveillance Detachment, 313th Military Intelligence Battalion, 82nd
Airborne Division based in Zakhu, located in Iraqi Kurdistan. Another task for the Brigade
was to assist British engineers in a systematic mapping of the entire nation and creating
an Iraqi Geospatial Reference System, in order to make national reconstruction easier and
more organized. The 20th Brigade suffered at least one casualty during its tour in Iraq,
with a soldier killed by an enemy Improvised Explosive Device on 22 August 2005 in Ad Dwar
when an explosive device destroyed his vehicle. During its deployment to Iraq, the Unit assumed
command of several additional battalions from the Army National Guard, forcing existing
formations of the unit to cope with additional responsibilities. Seemingly elements of the
107th and 507th Engineer Battalions of the Michigan Army National Guard, the 30th Engineer
Brigade (TA) of the North Carolina Army National Guard and the 194th Engineer Brigade of the
Tennessee National Guard were part of the brigade.===Second Iraq tour===
The brigade again deployed to Iraq for the OIF 07-09 rotation. This time, the brigade
was headquartered in Balad, Iraq. The brigade was given Husky Mine Detection vehicles and
Buffalo mine protected carrier vehicles for the deployment. The brigade was responsible
for providing combat, geospatial and general engineering and reconstruction operations
in partnership with Provincial Reconstruction Teams, Civil Service Corps, Sons of Iraq and
Iraqi Army engineers, as well as training and assisting the Iraqi Army and provincial
engineers in the rebuilding of the infrastructure of Iraq. As of May 2008, the brigade had constructed
10 major bridges and destroyed or captured IED cells in nine of the country’s provinces.
During the deployment it was visited by Lieutenant General Lloyd J. Austin III, the commanding
general of Multi-National Corps Iraq. The brigade was scheduled to return to Fort Bragg
in the fall of 2008, to be replaced by the 555th Engineer Brigade. This was completed
during a transfer of authority ceremony on 29 September 2008. The brigade then began
redeploying to Fort Bragg, completing its return by November 2008. A year later, in
August 2009, the brigade held a ceremony promoting dozens of its soldiers to the rank of Sergeant.==Honors=====Unit decorations======
Campaign streamers=====
Notable soldiers==Numerous soldiers who have served in the 20th
Engineer Brigade have later achieved fame for various reasons, most of them having served
the 20th in Vietnam. Former 20th Engineer Brigade soldiers and engineers include Chief
of Engineers Robert B. Flowers, Governor of the Panama Canal Zone Harold Parfitt, Vice
President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize winner Al Gore, Sergeant Major of the
Army Leon L. Van Autreve, and West Virginian state Senator Richard Ojeda

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