35. Richard Cameron – Lion of the Covenant

well Richard Cameron lion of the Covenant okay I just want to know anybody who's heard of Richard Cameron anybody is this fresh material all right we have one good all right good I just don't want to say a bunch of stuff that you all know you know this is Sunday school so we want to be a little bit of Education anyway he's called the Lion of the Covenant he was born in 1644 in this house in Falkland kind of a lower middle class family there in Scotland 1644 you recall is when the Long Parliament is governing in England and Scotland has been able to negotiate with charles ii a deal now i'm just refreshing your memories I know you recall this but it has been three weeks four weeks actually recall that Charles the first was executed by the Long Parliament and and they repudiated marnik monarchy at that point and it was the Puritan interregnum as it's called and Oliver Cromwell was dominating the political life in England in Scotland once Charles the first was dead the Scottish Parliament recognized his son Charles the second to be the the heir to the throne Charles the second was pretty excited about that was ready to go and start ruling Scotland from his position of exile in France but the Scots said oh hold the phone before you come in here and begin running this place you need to be aware of and in fact sign off on your recognition that we are Presbyterian Presbyterian Church Presbyterian state and what that means is that in Scotland it's the rule of law and we have constitutional monarchy and your powers charles ii are therefore delimited by a constitution so we will we will give you admission to the land you rule as long as you agree to that particular proposition charles didn't like it very much but he came and so he signed off that's critical to story he's signed off on a document that essentially acknowledged a Presbyterian form of government in which you have balance of power limited Authority rule of law and other principles that float straight out of the Reformation so Charles who didn't believe in any of that nevertheless had to cut that deal in order to be able to be part of the political life in England or in Scotland rather so anyway Richard Cameron was was born in Scotland now if you recall from our last time together England kind of the the Puritan movement in England sort of fizzled by about 1660 I hate to use a word like that but we did go over that in some detail I think there's reasons for it but the momentum that had begun with the Long Parliament have really been building for many many years really kind of hid the reefs and I think the Puritans took the rap for some things that they were not really responsible for I blamed Oliver Cromwell to some degree for this but the point is by the time we get to 1660 for the English people it was too much this kind of Republican Puritan view of government was more than they could abide there was too much what they viewed as chaos instability and they just wanted to get a king back something about having a king made them feel a little bit more secure and stable and so they and after the death of Oliver Cromwell and after the abysmal failure of his son to carry on that that kind of Puritan rule or that interregnum anyway they invited Charles to come back well coming back under those terms gave him an awful lot of political horsepower in England and it also gave him sufficient military power to put the squeeze on Scotland and so in Scotland things changed in a hurry once Charles came back and essentially I think what we'd say is he simply breached out right and rather extravagantly the agreements he made with the Scots originally and that became in a sense the justification for a fair amount of the story we're going to tell the first thing that Charles did was to enact what was called the Clarendon code I mentioned that last time the Clarendon code was essentially a code that dictated that anybody who was going to be involved in the official religious life either in England or Scotland had to be approved by the official Church which ultimately meant be approved by the King that was imposed in Scotland and the Scots who of course were committed to their Presbyterian vision immediately protested but charles ii treated them to a vicious series over several years of reprisals of persecutions of executions of trials of various kinds and many of the leaders in the scottish church because they simply didn't have the military horse power at that point to resist what amounted to this overwhelming assault from charles were unable to keep this from happening so this continues now and begins what's called a period of time in scottish history that's usually called the killing times in which charles ii is engaged in this richard Cameron is a teenager during these years he for his part graduated from st. Andrews in 1665 he was trained as a schoolteacher and that's really what he did in 1668 Charles now who has had the Presbyterian world in Scotland mortis kicked back on its heels for sometimes offers a kind of fig leaf he says hey look let's let's make a deal he says I'll tell you what you Scottish Presbyterians I will let you continue to have your Presbyterian Church you don't need to become Anglican I will let you have your presbyteries and your sentence and your General Assemblies I will let you do all of those things in Scotland all I ask in return is this that all of the leaders of the church the pastors and so on who have positions of authority in the church signed a little document and all the documents going to is that ultimately the king is the supreme head of the church in Scotland in effect saying the king is the Pope of the church in Scotland you see well I think you all understand that should have been a deal breaker that was probably at the very heart and core of what the Scots had been protesting all along Christ is the head of the church and that position is not to be usurped by any vicar in this world and so in this world the authorities are official not personal you see we've talked about that before but by this time these leaders of the Scottish Presbyterian Church had been so beleaguered so beaten down that about 50 to 60 of them actually agreed to sign off on this document and that took place in 1668 and at that point there was a split in the Presbyterian Church in Scotland between the official church which now has acknowledged Charles as the head of the church and a kind of unofficial Church which believed it was the true continuing expression of the Presbyterian Church going back to John Knox so you've got two churches the official visible Church and the kind of unofficial underground Church and it met in what were called conventicle 's conventicle x' were sort of outside off the radar many times in kind of rural areas outside of town secret for sure because they were illegal this is a painting by George Harvey in which he's you really can't see it I'm so sorry if the lights were a little better it looks great right here if you'd like to come up and you don't take a peek but anyway it's picturing there kind of this gathering informal gathering you sort of get the feel outside of town there around a little kind of a bonfire you know and they're singing songs a very informal worship but it's still represented a fairly well organized Presbyterian Church in Scotland they still had their presbyteries they still had all of the organizational infrastructure it's just that it was all unofficial with respect to the kind of policies of Scotland at the time so Richard Cameron who had graduated five years early begins attending these convince' khals and soon enough actually begins to be something of a leader among them so much so that in 1675 he was arrested and charged with being involved in illegal worship in Scotland now at this point Richard Cameron is in his mid-20s we don't know exactly what the outcome of the trial was we'd only have one little scant court record discovered by a PhD student one upon a time that found his name and the charge against him for illegal worship probably what took place was he was fined and had his hand slapped and was told don't do this again or the penalties are gonna be much worse that would be kind of the standard fair warning and then followed by more severe sanctions if the person didn't abide by those dictates well in any event Richard Cameron was undaunted in this and by 1678 becomes what was commonly called a field preacher that was the term used for these conventicle preachers who would participate and lead worship out in this sort of informal setting and so he became one of these he was actually summoned three times before presbyteries of the official Presbyterian Church and again warned and censured but it didn't stop him he continued to preach in 1679 however he did go to Holland many of those who were from Scotland and England during these years in which Charles was continuing to ramp up his really a very harsh and in many cases bloody persecution of largely Presbyterians went to Holland Holland was the place where there was the greatest religious toleration and liberty of any European country at the time so they had exiles there for many different quarters representing quite a few different religious strands he goes to Holland and joins other eggs therefore a little bit of a reprieve and it's during that time that he's actually officially ordained a pastor to the Scottish Kirk as it was called to the church this is the convince achill side but there's an official ordination service and there was some sense that Richard Cameron was possessed of the gifts and the insight and the personality to go back to Scotland and do something significant I think he sensed that about himself there was never a question but what he would go back to Scotland but he wanted to really clarify in his own mind what the vision was for his ongoing career there so he was ordained in 1679 the pastor who preached at his ordination service gave what amounted to a typical sermon challenging him to be courageous and so on calling him to faithfulness to the Word of God and more or less extolling the virtues of the ordained ministry but the concluding paragraph of this pastor's sermon has been singled out as one of the most famous predictive prophecies from a pastor preaching in a situation like this to ever occur and so I want to read this concluding paragraph this is addressed by this pastor to Richard as he's being ordained he says quote Richard the public standard of the gospel is fallen in Scotland and if I know anything of the mind of the Lord you are called to undergo your trials before us and go home and lift the fallen standard and display it before the world but before you put your hand to it you shall go to as many of the field ministers as you can find and give them your hearty invitation to go with you and if they will not go go alone and the Lord will go with you behold all you be holders here is the head of a faithful minister and servant of Jesus Christ who shall lose the same for his master's interests and it should be set up before Sun and Moon in the public view of the world now in the broader to this sermon what this pastor was and was recognizing and envisioning was that Richard was going to be going back to Scotland not simply to preach although that might be the centerpiece of what he was doing but to really begin rallying a resistance movement – Charles Charles was viewed as an illegitimate rude ruler because he had breached his contract with the Scots people he had thrown away the agreements he had made to abide by this kind of Presbyterian vision and so in the minds of many Scots at this point what he was doing was not simply tyrannical but it was illegal and was worthy of being resisted the reason I mentioned this is because that was precisely what was in the minds of the American revolutionaries they had the same philosophy of government the same philosophy of monarchy monarchy is constitutional and when monarchy begins be behaving illegally it is worthy of being resisted that was the fundamental content of Jefferson's Declaration of Independence but they weren't the guys that came up with it first you see that was already in the works and Richard Cameron has the same vision for Scotland that would later become part of the American revolutionary spirit and that's why the revolutionaries in America had heard of Richard Cameron he was a great sort of inspiration to them and they all knew his name because he stood for in many ways the very thing that they were intending to assert as a political position in their own settings so I'm mentioning it partly for that reason but what's also remarkable here of course is this pastor makes this prediction which at least on the face of it looks like a prediction that Richard would it didn't have any head 'add for his campaign to liberate Scotland and indeed he was so it's a rather remarkable statement anyway Richard returned to Scotland began field preaching but also began to rally support for a political reaction to charles ii so he's doing more than preaching this is partly religion partly politics and he has found in the Scots people a fairly ready hearing but these people are not necessarily militarily trained they certainly don't have sophisticated weaponry they're not really in a position by any human standards to mount a kind of revolution but nevertheless they're rallying to Cameron who's galvanizing this sense of need to resist the tyranny of charles ii so that's what's going on when Richard wrote letters back to Holland he had to write them in somewhat cryptic or coded language because sometimes the letters were intercepted and he didn't want to betray what he was actually doing so he'd write things like this quote I've got a far better market than was expected when I came from you our wares vend well both in open markets and in houses through the country so of course he's writing about his experience in doing ministry but he's writing in this kind of veiled language he develops a kind of small militia and begins acting something like a Robin Hood sort of character in Scotland you know guerrilla warfare preaching on the one hand and harassing these who represented the the forces of Charles on this on the other and really began to give them a fair amount of grief and his popularity was beginning to be almost legendary even over just a few months he was largely attempting to defend those who were called the Covenant errs which was the name that was applied to this kind of off-the-books Presbyterian Church there in Scotland and as I say he was having a fair amount of success so much so that Charles ii himself finally felt it was necessary to put out a bounty on the head of richard cameron and he offered a huge reward for anyone who would deliver camera and dead or alive you know that sort of thing richard cameron only had a career in scotland that lasted for maybe six to eight months remarkably short for a guy that had such a powerful impact the last sermon he preached was at Kuip water in April of 1680 I want to read a little bit of this sermon partly because it'll give us an insight into the times also into Cameron but also into the spirit of the Christian psyche at that point especially in this kind of Reformation tradition listen to these words this is Richard Cameron now in the final sermon he preached but we are of the opinion that the church shall yet be more high and glorious than the church shall have and the church shall have more power than ever she had before and therefore we declare a validly in opposition to all tyrannical magistrates over Protestants and over Presbyterians magistrates that are open enemies to God we declare we will have none such acknowledged as lawful magistrates over us we will have none but such as are for the Advancement of piety and the suppression of impiety and wickedness let all the world say as they will we have the Word of God for it the work begun shall be carried on in spite of all opposition our Lord shall be exalted on earth and we do not question much but that he shall yet be exalted in Scotland now what I want you to notice about this is the optimistic flavor of it Richard Cameron was in the worst of all possible David and Goliath situations here you know he was greatly overwhelmed and and outgunned by those who were on the other side of this contest and he knew that his own prospects were grim at best as he continued this campaign and yet in spite of that you see this deep and powerful sense of optimism that ultimately this is a contest God is going to win Christ is going to be vindicated that the ultimate outcome is certain even though the immediate circumstances are at the very least you know difficult this was part of the Reformation vision the theology of John Calvin had repeatedly predicted that a time would come in human history when the knowledge of God would cover the earth as the waters cover the and that that was going to take place because of the growth of the church and the advancement of the gospel and the powerful effects of the Christian ministry in the world I don't know of any particular tradition that picked that up more powerfully than the Puritans and the Presbyterians among them who believed it John Winthrop sermon was all about that point a city on a hill that there's going to be this advancing expression of God's rule in this world that will ultimately consummate when all things are pulled together in Christ I mentioned that to you good Presbyterians because we are Americans and we are touched by American evangelicalism which has had exactly the opposite view as a result of what I view to be the unfortunate effects of dispensationalism which has taught us that history goes from bad to worse and that we gradually lose the battle and that ultimately the church barely hangs on at the end and it's precisely the opposite of the vision that was found here it was this vision that was the inspiration behind those folks coming over to Massachusetts Bay this view that this is a New England and this is a new advance of the gospel and a new expression of God's rule on this planet that was clearly plainly in their minds it's not so much plain in our minds and I think at least if we want to know something of the the tradition that has produced us we should get back in touch with that particular piece of the puzzle but anyway Cameron is giving what's really quite a typical expression of that robust sense of confidence even though he himself was facing horrific challenges at the very same time just one more little paragraph here I assure you that we in Scotland have need to take heed to ourselves I am very much afraid that we may even have done with good old days in Scotland for all this but let us stir up ourselves and take hold of him by faith for I assure you if you be not delivered and may have made a free and purified people we shall be no more a free corporation nation or embodied people than are the Jews to this day of course time the Jewish people were distributed around the world no homeland of their own I say this and he's saying the same will happen to us Scots in other words he doesn't hold out any guarantee that things would go well for Scotland in the short term even though he's confident God is going to win in the long term you see that's the kind of the balance that's reflected here he continues I say this not to disquiet you but to stir you up to take hold of Christ and his standard on which shall be written let Christ reign let us study to have it set up amongst us it is hard to tell where it shall first be erected but our Lord is to set up a standard and oh that it may be carried to Scotland when it is set up I wish I could do this with a Scottish accent you know it would be much better when it is set up it shall be carried through the nations and it shall go to Rome and the gates of Rome shall be burned with fire it's a standard that shall overthrow the throne of Britain and all the thrones in Europe that will not kiss the son lest he be angry and his anger and in his anger they perish in the way alluding of course to Psalm 2 so Richard Cameron was a powerful preacher preaching sermons that were not only gospel sermons but political sermons frankly these are sermons that were intended to rally support against what was viewed as a tyrannical and illegal rule in Scotland he read the final statement very famously in Scotland at least on June 22nd 1680 at a city called San quar in which he said quote this is to the people gathered there in the City Square we disowned Charles Stuart who has been raining or rather terrorizing on the throne of Britain for many years he has no right to the crown of Scotland for he has lied and broken his covenant both to God in His Church we being under the standard of our Lord Jesus Christ captain of salvation do declare a war with the tyrant and all his men as enemies of our Lord Jesus Christ if you're touring in Scotland sometime and you make it to the little town of San Carr you'll see the monument erected right there where he read that statement he's a famous guy in Scotland you know and so if you ever have a chance to drop by you might look at that one month later somebody betrayed his whereabouts and he was surrounded almost immediately by overwhelming forces coming from charles ii government dragoons as they were called richard of course recognized immediately that unless god just miraculously intervened there was no hope of escaping this he gave a powerful brief inspirational message to his men telling them that they were likely going to be fighting to the death but they were fighting for a cause in which ultimately their cause would be vindicated by christ the battle was joined the man commanding the forces of Charles was a man named Andrew Bruce he wrote quote the dispute continued a quarter of an hour very hot the rebels refusing either to fly or take court or fought like madmen but ultimately Richard Cameron himself was killed his head was indeed severed from his body along with his hands those were taken to his father who was in prison and shown to his father who with tears of course acknowledged that this was indeed the head and hands of his own son the battle took place at a location called Airds moss there's a monument that stands there celebrating that because he's viewed in heroic terms in Scottish history as a man who was fighting for the liberty of the Scots in the face of these overwhelming odds and so he went down as a hero and this is at least one expression of that there were hundreds or possibly thousands virtually all Presbyterians these are our brothers and sisters from you know a bygone era who were killed during these killing times for holding to the Republican outlook of Richard Cameron this Presbyterian vision for Scotland that had been abused and really breached by Charles as they saw it Charles Cameron was so famous that when william ii came this is William of William and Mary who comes into England in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 one of the first things he did was establish what was called the Cameroonian Regiment of the British Army it was established in 1689 it continued uninterrupted until 1968 and the regiment was served the pleasure of the British crown all through those years it was dismantled in 68 because it was a time when the British military was being downsized and so it went away at that point the most recent biography of Richard Cameron which is an excellent read and I recommend it if you're interested in more detail on this is a man named Maurice grant who writes the Lion of the Covenant and he gives much more detail much more interesting detail than I've had time to cover here but he makes quite a thesis quite a case that really in many ways it was Richard Cameron who was one of the early expressions of what he calls republicanism and the religious freedom against hereditary monarchy and religious tyranny that continued to be part of the inspiration for the next several years in the history of both England and America as I say these so called killing times continued for about eight more years let me see a second of just the most famous of these many many people who died at this time were these so-called Solway martyrs that I alluded to earlier the Solway martyrs were three women originally it was only two that were killed but three were arrested Margaret McLaughlin who was about 63 years old Margaret Wilson who was 18 years old and then the younger sister of Margaret Wilson Ms Wilson 13 years old they had been part of this covenant hers movement and they had that it wasn't that they had distinguished themselves by being remarkable or vociferous or anything like that but they were just associated with it and their whereabouts was discovered on one occasion and they were arrested Agnes Agnes Wilson Agnes so anyway the trial tried to give this to you because it's so it's it's it's wonderfully touching this is the trial transcript that took place on April 13th 1685 of these three women one older woman 63 two teenage girls the judge says will you swear the oath recognizing the King as head over the church that was the central issue they said in unison no he said then this Court finds you guilty of treason for denying the Kings sovereignty in the church and attending unlawful services and meetings in the countryside these conventicle services this was a capital crime the judge then said to them kneel before the court as I pronounce sentence upon you which they refused to do so the guards facilitated that they were forced to their knees then the judge said Margaret mcLaughlin Margaret Wilson and Agnes Wilson you are guilty of treason before his majesty's government and are hereby sentenced to death you shall be tied to posts and fixed in the sand within the tideland and there to stand until the tide water overflow you and drown you the father of the two girls Margaret's and Agnes was in the courtroom he in tears as you can well imagine came forward pleading for the life especially of his two daughters the judge was not willing to give him any help with respect to the older daughter the 13 year old Agnes however the judge said if these father would pay a huge fine then he would be willing to release her the father gave security for the fine it would be enough to bankrupt someone and in fact it did but obviously to win the freedom even of one of his daughters he did that and then he immediately got the fastest horse he could find galloping off to Edinboro hoping to appeal to a higher court to overturn this ruling of that particular court he was not successful on May 11th of 1685 this is the execution transcript this is now down in this tied area what happened was that Margaret McLaughlin the older lady had been staked out about a hundred yards into the water whereas the younger Margaret was on a stake 100 yards back so she would have to watch the older lady drowned knowing that she was next you see that was the so as she's hanging there or stake there as the picture here depicts it she sees this woman who had been a close friend of hers a mentor of her as a confidant of hers someone that she'd looked to all of these years for help and training and encouragement I didn't give you much of their backstory but that was essentially the role she had played she watched as she struggled for life and eventually died as this water was coming and about by that time it was about to the knees of Margaret the executioner upon the death of the older Margaret says to her so what do you think now hoping that this would move Margaret to recant her faith to acknowledge the king and to thereby free herself from this doom which was otherwise going to take her Margaret said these words I see Christ wrestling there this is an 18 year old girl do you think we are the sufferers no it is Christ in us who was suffering then she began to sing this is from the Scottish Salter based on Psalm 25 my sins and faults of youth do Thou O Lord forget after thy mercy think on me and for thy goodness Great God good and upright is the way heal sinners show the meek and judgment he will guide and make his path to know so without wilting or breaking down she gives that courageous response she then began to read they had given her the right to hold her Bible as she was facing death and she opened it and read the text that I read to you just a little while ago she began at the verse that says for I consider that the sufferings of this present time aren't worthy to be compared to the glory that shall be revealed in us and then she read through that whole text if God be for us who can be against us he who spared not his own son but offered him up for us all how will he not with him freely give us all things who will lay a charge against God's elect it is God who justified who's going to condemn it's Christ who died who rather rose to life and sits at the right hand of God the Father interceding for us who will separate us from the love of Christ we'll all of these threats things present things to come life death principalities angels all of these things are they going to move this person and she had this deep confidence I'm sure that even as she was facing this horrific prospect within the next few moments there was a Christ in heaven praying for her just as you recall Stephen the first Christian martyr looked up in heaven and saw Christ standing at the right hand of God the Father and I think maybe Margaret saw something of that as well the executioner moved by all of this and trying to find some basis to release her said look pray for the king for he is supreme over all persons in the church just say a little prayer Margaret said I pray for the salvation of all men I wish no one to be condemned the execution said that's not what I meant pray for the king swear the oath Margaret said Lord give the King repentance forgiveness and salvation if it be thy will she's a good Calvinist report the people who are there's quite a crowd on the shore watching all of this they heard her pray that prayer and immediately an uproar went out she prayed for the king release her she said it the executioner said let the dog go to hell we do not want such prayers swear the oath Margaret said no no no sinful oaths for me I am one of Christ's children let me go meaning let me go to my death the executioner said take another drink and he took her head and forced it under the water that was now about up to her neck and she went into the arms of her Savior this became a famous incident as you can well imagine there is a monument called the Whig town martyrs monument in Old Town Cemetery in Stirling it depicts Margaret Wilson reading the Bible her younger sister Agnes watching and they're both watched over by a guardian angel that's the monument the kind of inscription there reads as follows Margaret Wilson aged 18 daughter of a farmer in Glen Rock and Margaret McLaughlin aged 63 tenant in the farm of brunch are hon tom both this county were drowned by sentence of the public authorities in the waters of blood knock near this place on the 11th of May 1685 because they refused to forsake the principles of the Scottish Reformation and to take the government oath Abdur the people to resist the tyranny of their rulers that took place in 1685 charles ii died almost the same moment and so the tyrannical movement the rule that he had been responsible for ended just not not on that day but within that almost a near timeframe he died suddenly he was not an old man it wasn't expected but it was the end of his rule he had become as you probably know a kind of closeted Catholic some years earlier and was received into the Catholic Church with all due honors he was succeeded by his brother James the second because Charles had no descendants so James the second ruled and he ruled for only three years of you know this little story in English history which I'll just touch on very briefly now James ii had been living in france actually converted to catholicism in 1669 the exclusion crisis in england had given rise to the two political parties you've heard of the Whigs and the Tories the entire controversy that produced these two parties was whether or not james ii should be permitted to become the next king because he was openly catholic and the english people although they were at least willing to accept anglicanism or hostile to catholicism which had been seen as the chief source of much of the grief that they had endured over the years nevertheless in spite of that he succeeded to the throne in 1685 he immediately implemented policies that were largely pro catholic compared to what had been the case in england was trying as best he can you know as near as you can tell from a distance to try to begin doing something that Mary Tudor was doing trying to steer the the English country back toward the Pope the English people were unwilling to abide that at all and they sent out an invitation to the two rulers in Holland actually a nobleman in Holland who was William of Orange who happened to be married to Mary the daughter of James ii and so that was the connection to the throne and that's called the Glorious Revolution William was invited to come by Midian in England most of whom were leading Protestants he landed with about eleven thousand troops in November of 1688 at a time when the winds would have been contrary and yet the winds were very favourable and it came to be called in English history the Protestant wind and he came the English military in England were so happy to see William come James was so richly resented that there was not a shot fired this is called the bloodless revolution or the Glorious Revolution because it was no conflict military conflict at all simply the whole country sort of went over to William and Mary at this point William and Mary were crowned in 1689 and received the Scottish crown as well the following month just briefly this was the time really you'd say fundamentally when constitutional monarchy was finally permanently put in place in England in the form that it continues to this day England still has a monarchy as you know but the power of the monarchy was greatly delimited this is when you might say Presbyterianism one now for Presbyterianism wouldn't have a monarchy at all but still this constitutional monarchy was the Calvinistic vision everybody is under the law even the king and that is this is the moment really when it happened I don't think this would have happened had it not been for the Puritan influence but in any event that's a point that's debated by some I'll just leave it at that some of the other things that are interesting from this I'll just give you this and then we'll wrap up the act of toleration was enacted which gave us broad toleration religious toleration in England except for Catholics and non Trinitarians or non-christians so it was toleration you know calibrated against that moment in history you understand that we are at a different time in history and so we can smile at that but at the time the Catholic Church was still viewed as a significant threat to England and that was the spirit of the times that you know just a kind of fear of allowing any intrusion also the English Bill of Rights was enacted at this point which was precisely intended to secure the rights of people in England against prospective tyrannical government and some of the rights that were inaugurated there see if you recognize any of these restrictions on royal power to suspend laws passed by Parliament to levy taxes to infringe the right of petition to raise a standing army in peacetime to deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects Protestant subjects to interfere with the parliamentary elections to punish members of either house of parliament for anything said during debates to require excessive bail or inflict cruel and unusual punishments James Madison who of course was the substantial author of the American Bill of Rights used this as a source document interestingly and for somewhat subtle reasons he did not support having a Bill of Rights it was Patrick Henry who more or less forced him to it you know but but having been more or less forced to it he drew his inspiration in some ways from the language of the English Bill of Rights which had been formalized some 80 or 90 years earlier so we are appreciative of this moment in English history because my friends it was also quite instrumental in shaping the eventual constitutional Republican and I will say Presbyterian experiment in limited government that is part of our own American heritage just remind you just remind you of Margaret I don't know if any of us will be tied to a stake in a tideland by the end of the day I doubt it well anything's possible so let's not be too Cavalier in our confidence but there's not one of us in this room who hasn't felt tied to a stake at some time or other in our lives and seeing the water coming and fought to ourselves it's over this threat is something I cannot deal with maybe it's family issues maybe it's financial issues I don't know but I know we've all been there with Margaret seeing what seems like this threat that is irresistible inexorable and cannot be avoided and I say to you that the same Christ who was praying for Margaret based on Romans chapter 8 who prayed for Stephen when he was being stoned by an outraged Sanhedrin is praying for you and what can separate you from the love of Christ my friend amen you

9 thoughts on “35. Richard Cameron – Lion of the Covenant

  • Richard, didn't the reformer's confidence come true in the great missionary advancements of the 19th and early 20th centuries?

  • Type in Edmond Fleetwood Sr. Geni.com and walk the pages back by following who their father was…..
    It should walk you back to Sir Charles Fleetwood and his father was Sir Miles Fleetwood! My g g grandfather Sgt. Charles Fleetwood also had a brother named Miles Fleetwood. Sgt Charles Fleetwood 1808-1864 was a member of the Dragoons at Fort Gibson! The qualifications of becoming a dragoon was to know how to read and write and come from a respected heritage!
    Google, Sgt. Charles Fleetwood and Lucinda Fleetwood- "The Trail of Tears" or google, "The Trail of Tears", by Aquilla Ose Fleetwood, youtube! This is her account of the "Trail of Tears"!
    Wa do…..

  • My g x 6 great grandfather, Sir Charles Fleetwood married Bridget Cromwell, who was Oliver Cromwell's daughter!

  • I am one of the few surviving members of the 1st Battalion the Cameronian Scottish Rifles. Our Covenanting history was a strong tradition amongst us. From the first we were taught that it was not only the Bible but the Bible and the sword. Before the First World War our officers were Church of Scotland Elders in each company. We only ever played the first six bars of the National at events even when the Queen was present. We were the only non Royal regiment in the British army. We were disbanded in 1968 by the Tories as an act of political expediency. I have visited nearly all the Covenanting sites in Scotland and studied the whole mater. You need to be Scottish and not American to appreciate fully the Presbyterian system in Scotland. The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland is the only true Presbyterians left. The persecution of the Covenanters was political and Prelatic by what we would call today the Church of England. They used to say of Charles II, "Give him a flagon of wine and a whore and he is content". A car park now stands over the grave of John Knox where I have stood many a time in the rain on parade with the Scottish Rifles.

  • I submit that the Seven Ecumenical Church Councils[ First Council of Nicaea (325) First Council of Constantinople (381) First Council of Ephesus (431) Council of Chalcedon (451) Second Council of Constantinople (553) Third Council of Constantinople (680–681) Second Council of Nicaea (787) ] were the precursors to the presbyterial form of government as it evolved in Scotland.

  • I received a grant while attending McGill U. called the Margaret Wilson Award, 30 yrs later I find out who she is. I'm so honoured!! Excellent lecture series.

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