4_6 Communism – The Promise and the Reality – Great Leap Forward

you October 1949 victory celebrations in Beijing over 30 years after the Soviet revolution communism makes a second great advance the country with the largest population in the world now has a communist government photographer boo boy is on the platform the square was full of excited people chanting long live Chairman Mao Jay to whatever she Mabel but there was really only one thing on my mind and that was to capture those precious moments with my camera yeah shall you go and lead them to future generations doncha promote sanjak kim jong upon it was a special day for china after thousands of years of struggle we were liberated at last she what a joy wanna do chika the crowds in Tiananmen Square here Mauser don't proclaim a new beginning now says China will now be free of inequality poverty and foreign domination almost overnight one fifth of the world's people become part of the greatest experiment and mass mobilization of the 20th century they will be told to work live and think in a new way but in a series of cataclysmic social experiments millions will suffer or die as they attempt the great leap toward Mouse new society for the first half of the 20th century most Chinese still lived in ways that had remained unchanged for generations four out of five worked on the land in desperate poverty most were in debt to landowners or moneylenders in the west of China who been choose family were landless laborers not other soldiers you Tohono sure man it was a hard life we had very little to live on so we got stirred by wolf cloth day and night to make ends meet we could only just scrape by sea with a nozzle button used to anymore or you by God in the past there was justice for the rich but nothing for the poor who cared about us then nobody knew all gamma Laden's organs Yoga mutual limit you can't believe how badly the poor would treat it till account wasn't as a whole Kumar I think with the need to tackle rural poverty and modernize was recognized in the 1920s president Chiang kai-shek re-established a central government ending the turmoil between rival warlords his Nationalist Party drew support from Chinese businessmen and the landowners in the countryside foreigners were allowed to keep their privileged holdover trade in finance and the Nationalists believe that in time captain ism would spread its wealth out to the other China beyond Shanghai and the coastal cities with you but the gulf between the lives of the middle class and the masses of cousins and laborers remained as wide as ever jing jinga was married to a leading shanghai businessman why she should make a child I learned how to dance I used to go out with my husband to social functions did the hood and a top which he enjoyed playing mahjong and always took a lot of trouble about how he dressed when he went out as China began to industrialize low wages and poor conditions increased the social divide after the success of the Russian Revolution some look to China's newly formed Communist Party for a radical change that could shake China out of its lethargy starting in Shanghai the Communist attempted to stir up the city's factory workers but they were savagely suppressed by Chiang kai-shek's forces those who survived fled to the countryside and were pursued across China 80,000 set out on what came to be called the long march fewer than 8,000 survived from their camp in the caves of yen on their leader Mao Zedong planned a new kind of revolution that would spring from the countryside rather than from the workers in the cities in a short time he said several hundred million peasants will rise like a tornado or a tempest during the Second World War the Communists and nationalists joined forces to fight the Japanese invaders but when the war ended a full-scale civil war between the two sides resumed Mao promised the peasants land reform and his troops treated them well nothing javelin deirdre would indict easily when the soldiers first came to our village I was really scared of him what I was I would have fun young I didn't even dare sleep in my room with you so much yours any seniors I showed you a girl they told me they were the People's Liberation Army how you say that I shouldn't be frightened a woman though I do pop fool there's a woman's yeah they slept in the street and we're extremely well behaved by the autumn of 1949 the Communists had driven the Nationalists out of all the major cities they fled to the island of Taiwan taking the country's gold reserves with them Mao Zedong took over a bankrupt devastated country and immediately set out to transform it young man he go into shock when Raja hudabega he says and wake ego can you have it do you Oh wave at it leg up now now held more power than any leader sense the Emperor's he promised a China that could stand on its own feet alongside the other world powers Mao's version of communism was to be the foundation for a pure fairer more progressive state than the one that had emerged in the Soviet Union it was to be a revolution in which the peasants were to take the leading role activists would explain the ideas of class identity and class struggle to every village and workplace and incite the peasants to speak up against enemies of the people Chinese were now bombarded with propaganda traveling projection teams took films to the remotest areas bringing the message of active socialism as the revolutionary program began the peasants were the first to benefit they were granted the land reform they'd wanted for so long it was the party's plan that they should seem to make the change themselves speak bitterness meetings were held in which the landlords and others linked to the defeated nationalists were confronted and denounced by the peasants if a defendant siema jazz' Hazuki we were told to get together and ask the landlords to return land to us you know we stated how much they should return and how they should return how would you say there was a denunciation meeting every day I know I hate highway local party secretary Noah Shifa helped prep up feeling in his village oh you – I know thou come the first thing I had to do was to bring down the landlords what we did was persuade the tenant farmers to denounce they lookin at all so I know me GG was out of jail we do a public meeting they would explain how they couldn't afford to pay back the rent every year for how they had to take out high interest loans to pay it off people around the stage sympathize with the poor peasants stories and they tweak sympathy election they go 200 play funny – in the sea can you remember did abandon infant eating food or Daniela did you have hundreds of thousands were killed in go food-related gig I go whenever the sensory chief with Halle Hinton comment engine the punch and pull up to eat it the class warfare was less vicious in the cities the Communists tried to win the support of the managers and technicians the Revolution needed to keep the mills and plants running and to assimilate the captain owners who had not left with the Nationalists propaganda showed businessman handing the deeds of their companies over to the state and then celebrating with improbable Glee the new socialist dawn jeonhwa dom district party secretary heard what was really happening Sherina hi Jenna hiya Troy you my day they pretended to support the party how about your little children's party our own but at night behind closed doors they gathered their families around them and cry bemoaning the fact that everything they'd worked for would soon be lost so yeah gee sure Nana can't yell a Worman degas a year tongue will ya allah JJ chook wanna when we realized this we decided to recruit capitalists who sympathize with the party yeah Xiang yet the Jin family in Shanghai decided it was best to cooperate mrs. Jing take part in a film explaining her new outlook to other wives thinkin kids I saw the potential for – Tong fo poontang with booty demeaning oh it sees the Dominion comes to me about that but I thought I'm so quickly the funding God Oh Yoko you punk hilum thank you flash after liberation the communists didn't like businesses like my husband's so he was in trouble then we studied the party's policies and decided that joint ownership with the state was the only solution but for those who resisted the changeover could be bloody goe worked at a Beijing Factory – Ilya the big bosses in our factory were executed immediately the less important ones were forced to reform through hard labor senator Lyndon leggo that's all do we were keep an eye on that give you enough dojo will give me nah yeah Godzilla got the color we hated them so much we beat them if they didn't work hard enough humble guys – all right they can kind of sorrow but you know that's the way they treated us Romina now you're the best they've been masters know we were why don't women that one do quite well now that we're gonna wonder work when manager Ola women were given new rights at work and in marriage the painful tradition of foot binding was abolished and women were helped in the drive to end illiteracy now you're in from a village near Beijing was first a pupil and a teacher she and one side learned how I could teach others to read well enlighten I didn't have a blackboard so I used a wooden door I wrote words on it and may copy them or a minimum quoi some of them had their babies with them breastfeeding and studying at the same time I can tell you it was really hard turns out will achieve muhahaha Tito mating you cry selfie by the shaky from drop-down comments you need a gun for the show – Bok suji – Arriba tragedy through shop see a question can all don't less food oceans Tintin put on a street to you to clean up China's dirt and disease the Communist launched mass campaigns and expected everyone to take part propaganda films were used to set the pace millions were inoculated against the epidemic diseases that had racked China war was waged on old habits when you everything Bert Bert there are seven good on the job that's what that show daddy Jimmy you could imagine yummy oh you're home well Magilla gorilla you do drew yella my leg Oh the pressure was inescapable party activists checked up on their neighbors housework Jennifer Chien from the local street committee went from house to house which is what we used to say do you love your country you know the country is calling on you to carry out the public health campaign get on with it Zooey's when they heard this people said oh ah if we don't do it well that means we don't love our country well mayor jean we used to go up the lane to check on people's housework to see if they'd done it properly so we all come and how you haze is awesome I would examine the tables to see if they were dusty may way that if everything was neat and tidy that would be fine if not I would tell the women to do it better damage yet you did elation huh I'm now I got it hard well knock you down a hatch am I good Madea nigga we cleaned the alley and put up posters one said everyone must help to exterminate the for pests and also Shan Meis ahead nothing escaped attention one of the official pests was the sparrow the small birds were accused of devouring the crops that's only two fathers the word came down from above to mobilize the people to kill the sparrows I add villagers of all ages joined in those names so busy we even had to take turns to eat the trees were really high and hard to shake but everyone did their best so the sparrows couldn't land tapas are gorgeous I gotta go we used to sling shots come on ooh was that you are here some people used guns sangmi ma I give you Pumbaa wanted you to know ma never killed the most sparrows was praised and given rewards using I do not use those who caught fewer were criticized and encouraged to do better the next day in fact the campaign backfired with the sparrows gone more insects survived to strip the crops the same effort to get mass participation was applied to another type of cleansing of incorrect thoughts people were asked to look out for neighbors or fellow workers who seemed to meet the party's description of rightists or capitalists or counter-revolutionaries they were then denounced but the boldest attempt to harness the energy and enthusiasm of the people came in 1958 to speed up progress Mao wanted to use the force he believed in most China's sheer numbers for his Great Leap Forward propaganda cartoons showed how the Chinese were meant to overtake Western industry and food production land so ceremoniously given to the peasants after the Revolution was now taken back and the peasants were herded into huge communes district secretary Jin Hwa dong oversaw the operation in his area well what ginger de why I was responsible for setting up people's communes and turned eight agricultural cooperatives into two big communes there were over a hundred thousand people in it runs an Archie why didn't come said you why are you thought sure big communes could handle big projects thousands of people to do a job things were completed in no time friend you production brigades were sent where they were thought to be needed most under military-style discipline the party said it was a more efficient better faster way to build socialism private ownership of land had already been eliminated now family life was to be destroyed as well peasants were to eat food cooked in central kitchens children would be looked after together Mouse at the target of doubling food production in one year revolutionary enthusiasm he said will triumph over all obstacles he took a close interest as the peasants tried to increase yields when the dongseong commune promised a record harvest it was genoise Tong the district secretary who showed the Chairman around ginger cognitive scene Odyssey Chairman Mao himself visit is the show filled and asked how much it was expected to you after seeing my colleague said 50,000 pounds an acre more Chairman Mao replied even if you could achieve 10% of that it would be a miracle yes look yet I'm the cheese queeg deals had typically been about 500 pounds an acre now the party encouraged competition among the communes to push up the yields wake up Jewish young for the diesel my time 2007 she backed by a pellet into a 309 points in the how Hammond so it is with us we go what I'm French in you stinking de shotguns in the heart you shall 8000 cut out Fulton Street know what I'm puttin do you go from San Beijing by equation the instrument iron envelope thank unfortunate a llama woman flushes by question one more time which engine the usual a bad woman eg friendship don't you sleep out hopeful bungee the pledges were absurd but the communes falsify their records to back them up dude why nigga shame dolls I don't know lui donner cheat we removed the already planted rides from the fields and replanted it in a show field so that we could reach our quarters I share I've got without letting it so densely with no light or wind blowing through cement it would rot call us to the end which are just a lot before long the rice did ride and the peasants got angry they said if you take all the rice and waste it what will we eat in the autumn rog found water what do you mean no time the peasants didn't want to go on with his cheating halt warmint you owe me lunch should I try to get it started yeah but the local boss ordered us to carry us falou doctor thou hallo Shirley how they call but the fall statistics contributed to a dangerous delusion that China had plenty of food and could concentrate on other things we must reach for the moon and the stars set now men can achieve anything he can imagine huge construction projects also pitted great masses of people against apparently insuperable obstacles Lin County and Hunan was an arid plain blocked off by mountains the 1,800 mile long red-flag Canal was planned to bring in water over the rocky terrain the canal workers were celebrated as revolutionary heroes Jung Yong Chun worked on the rock face so now you tell shall I tie a rope around my body and swing out into the air I used a pick to remove the loose stones when they fell I had to try hard to keep out of the way shell Tangela to avoid getting my legs broken you thought rutila accidents were frequent gen Yong Chun was sent to clear up afterwards not gonna do yoga we go to the mountain and looked up I could see bits of flesh glinting in the Sun too – mother Lily you soon and I climbed down the road firuzan Sharlee who time on I picked up some dirt to wipe away every trace of the bodies honor you shampoos for the otherwise people would have been too frightened to carry on did you dodo head but the canal took twice as many people and far longer to build than expected Kaiser sir sire you conditionally there were 30,000 on the project plan was that if each person built one meter canal would be completed in one or two months George it was all much more difficult because the canal was halfway up a mountain oh yeah in the end it took ten years to complete zero sahaja to meet the most ambitious goal of the Great Leap Forward Mao told the Chinese that production of Steel had to double in one year and instead of producing this just from heavy industry the energy and idealism of the peasants was to be mobilized again small furnaces were built in villages and backyards across the country they collected any scrap they could find they melted down doorknobs wash basins tools as the fever grew people gave up their cooking walks ho Jinghua had never made steel before but used her ingenuity when we built our own furnaces it was hard to reinforce them earth on its own wasn't strong but we didn't have enough straw huh yeah I had a long pigtail so I cut it off and snipped it into short pieces and mixed it with the earth in the furnace wha many of the other women cut off their hair as well Oh yesa her chink was husband yen Chen moon also filmed at the time was just as enthusiastic yeah I'm gonna quit on it the two of us competed really hard now washer gel I know you find that Chan young if my team produced three tons of steel a shift her team would make over three tons and then I would encourage my team to think of ways to beat that say bang it yo you say about how one forests were decimated to fuel the furnaces 24 hours a day all over China almost everyone even medical doctors neglected their normal jobs to answer the call but even those taking part began to see it was folly Olga no one bid your form all we did was make steel and nothing else you didn't produce anything useful yep how could we do the salt we dug holes in the ground and tried to produce steel well it was all such a waste of time oh but Donna Fianna orders came from above we had to obey them I really did treasure is econo slowly it became clear that after so much effort in time after so much wood had been burned and so many pots and pans consigned to the flames the steel produced was impure weak and useless the full effect of the disastrous experiment began to be seen in 1959 while the peasants had been making steel they had done little else crops had rotted in the fields seed hadn't been planted food was already short because of the falsely exaggerated harvest the government had taken a bigger share of the crops to send to the cities a drought made the problem worse in 1960 the scarcity turned into a major famine national food production fell more than 25 percent local secretary Loretha had been away from his village studying at a party school we now I fan LC don't be when I came back from Beijing I saw that many people had bloated stomachs from starvation we had 1600 starving people in our commune over with weakness and just lying in the road others died oh no your war when the peasants saw me they began to cry I cried too they said to me if I got in there any later they might all have been dead in a secret report the party later admitted the full extent of the calamity their own figures showed that over 20 million had died from the famine it was almost certainly more the new graves in the burial grounds confirmed that the Great Leap had failed revolutionary enthusiasm hadn't been enough in the aftermath mal kept to the side and let the president feel so cheap run the country even mal knew that the economy had to be protected from his revolutionary zeal for the time being so more cautious targets were set large communes were abandoned Chinese peasants were allowed some land again and could sell their produce in free markets they were allowed to live as families and return to a more normal life revolutionary rhetoric was toned down there were fewer slogans but Mao was biding his time he feared his revolution was losing steam and he was losing control he saw a privileged bureaucratic class emerging as had happened in the Soviet Union he feared the return of capitalism and materialist incentives and believed China's chance to have a perfect socialist society was passing Mao supporters printed a book of quotations from his political speeches and writings and used them as the basis for a new attack on what was called the capitalist Road we still have to wage a protracted struggle against bourgeois and petty bourgeois ideology said Mao as he tried to regain power Mao used a piece of spectacular political showmanship to revive his reputation oh yeah me to demonstrate his vigor at the age of 72 he led a mass swim across the river Yangtze the thousand-year-old Beijing opera his mouths next target he wanted to break the thinking and attitudes of old China and he began with her traditional culture if the opera could be changed than anything could be 8 new revolutionary plays were written to replace the old stories of Emperor's and concubines don't Chun Ling who once played princes now played an officer in the People's Army what no I thought I did good kiddo don't gorge on up yo-yo I was chosen to play this revolutionary role and it was a great honor in one country one meal even as artists we were engineers of human souls a fine young chef at I don't genbank kundo actual woman we didn't just perform to earn money but had a serious responsibility to re-educate people sure you didn't joyfully I'm a feat I see we were so happy the Chairman Mao was creatively involved in this opera actually means learning mom didn't learn that in August 1966 now unleash the great proletarian Cultural Revolution he was assisted by a group later known as the gang of four which tried to build a mal cult to new heights in school children recited his message to them Chang hai at the number six girls school Xiao I Ling was the headmistress well what don't you chill got all wet had to feel hot the pupils came to realize that all the changes taking place in their families she's at school and Shanghai and China were brought about by Chairman Mao positon take a woman students were used to carry the Cultural Revolution forward for the first time young people were encouraged to attack Authority and the old hierarchy of the party and the advice came from Mao himself bombard the headquarters he said to rebel is justified one of the Beijing students who were the first to call themselves Red Guards was Joan pouching mother your father yes Chairman Mao started the Cultural Revolution to keep up the momentum for change everything he said was right so we thought if we follow mal we can't go wrong Jim only he can lead us from one victory to another a succession of huge rallies was held in Tiananmen Square the master of mass mobilization had shown he could still draw a political response directly from the people this time it wasn't the peasants in the country who did his bidding the most educated and energetic generation in China was following his every word the students felt excited and liberated as never before an estimated 11 million Red Guards came to see now 15 year-old Joshua Yoon was presented to him leshawna was it G cool that it G don't I was so overwhelmed by the excitement my mind just went blank was out the only thing I wanted to do was to get a good look at Chairman Mao and shake his hand if I got the chance I yield see what I shook hands with him three times because I'd been received by Chairman Mao millions of Red Guards regarded me like I said yes when they saw me they always wanted to shake the hand that Chairman Mao had shaken whoa I'm all to see what other self the rising fervor was directed at Mao's rivals including president Liu Shaoqi and don't shout ping banners attacked view even small children were taught to denounce Lou the rage was extended to foreign governments Western diplomats in Beijing were attacked almost anyone who was in power of any kind was denounced as a capitalist sympathizer the whole structure of the party was brought down including genoise dong the district secretary in Tianjin until well they could handle draw or was it jump yeah in all the previous campaigns I'd been singling people out and telling them their mistakes I was the one who found fault with them well was it so you don't owe him called will be here to catch fuchsia I didn't expect the tables to be turned on me this time or you know we shan't room time so you dig at older Piner phobia huh some of the biggest high school students who were very loyal to chairman mao press my head down twisted both my hands behind my back and made me bend over throughout the denunciation made you a shopkeeper or major no welcome I didn't think I'd survive in shit Ron Lewis Aoife the party secretary who'd helped his village through the famine was denounced the final one what army move you don't know / – honey yeah man well that I didn't expect the Cultural Revolution would affect me why should it well I knew I hadn't done anything wrong that had always had the support of the people you know you've chosen oversee you toma la ma are petite the denunciation meaning they slapped my face and forced me to kneel down guidish oldest child ya know Gavin each mo up here that quality through your life with our feeling a hot charcoal and broken glass was almost a daily routine so what I did was to put a soft head inside my pant legs and that made it easier when I was forced to my knees good I got a pen woohoo yeah pathetic felissa digs us in schools pupils attacked their teachers such as it'sa me you the whole show our headmaster had been really good to us but even he couldn't escape judge we didn't hit him personally but he represented bourgeois values so we had to attack him Sydal das a juicer we dragged our headmaster on to the school stage then students put a dunce cap on his head and a big placard around his neck the more extreme we were the more loyal we felt the Chairman mouth in Shanghai the teacher who taught her class to love Mao was now accused of being disloyal Dibble would be that'll be the shooter there were several hundred red guards wearing armbands others had military belts some had scissors in their hands Jeff would ready to cut Campbell's hair ah the MA they chopped off my hair and beat me with sticks na bong ha ha ha ha doesn't even watch it they ordered me to produce the red book and to recite that revolution means rebellion and violence Tina oh well that day I was wearing a white shirt without pockets so I wasn't carrying the red book with me since I'm better they said yeah if you're not carrying the red book that means you aren't loyal to Chairman Mao you build an you know you do multi-chip Adama I need to dare you say you love Chairman Mao you deserve to be overthrown so it was December in Shanghai and very cold ha ha they ordered me to stand outside the playground for a morning tonight oh cool I made you your English but then they thought the punishment wasn't severe enough still so they got a big black board and pressed it down on me John Shaw heads a touch up one of them stood on the right side and one on the left like a seesaw when I was squashed in the middle G touch how bad that's all you see that they wanted to knock me down so keep me down forever I fancy ciao Eiling was left with permanent injuries to her face up to a million were killed or driven to suicide the country was now in the grip of a revolutionary mania that became more and more violent and destructive the Red Guards attacked before old old habits old ideas old customs old culture books were burned and museums pillaged soon rival factions of Red Guards fought one another yeah patches ooh good show we use clubs and guns many were beaten until they bled others died but we all felt we were the true defenders as Chairman Mao's revolution too dies for the great leader was an honor the anarchy spread schools and hospitals closed offices and factories were in chaos bungy nigga the factory almost came to a standstill production was impossible we had meetings every day and workers were denounced we didn't know what to do one day you'd be arrested and the next day would be my turn Oh would not know your what acted we didn't know what what happened to the country many workers committed suicide by jumping in front of trains or into the river which is a new booth aku Chisholm the attempt at a state of continuous revolution was impossible to keep up eventually people crave the return to a more normal stable life after two years the army had to be called in to win the factional fighting restore order and help reestablish the party's authority and the red guards were sent to the countryside to cool off and learn from the peasants but the Cultural Revolution only ended in 1976 with Mao himself gone shy type punku ah hi lay call yo Tim Kendall didn't ha ha ha 20 Oh what good would it be to lighter-weight on TV oh wow yogi he'll shit 18 she in a bid to keep the country together the propagandist exploited the scenes of mass emotion on Mao's death much of the grief was genuine and many had seen their lives improved but millions had suffered or died victims of mouse attempt at perpetual revolution all of his charisma had not delivered the new society he'd promised after Mao's death his closest associates the Gang of Four were arrested and charged with throwing the country into chaos his most cherished ideas were abandoned mao successor don't shout ping tried to replace ideological fervor with economic activity the Chinese would be mobilized not by dreams of equality but by money in the 1980's political control was as tight as ever but the slogan from the top was to get rich is glorious but one legacy of Mao's reliance on popular action remained during the Cultural Revolution he'd allowed the students to challenge authority and feel a new sense of liberation after Mao the state always knew that the people once they learned how might try to challenge the party's authority again and their fears were to be borne out in 1989 on Tiananmen Square

25 thoughts on “4_6 Communism – The Promise and the Reality – Great Leap Forward

  • The one good thing that came out of this, the rich got what they deserved. Something needs to be done to the rich here.

  • What's funny is that the Cultural Revolution feels just exactly like Social Justice Warriors and #MeToo mobs.

  • The communists had some good ideas, but they needed more experts and better implementation of them. They needed to keep small businesses open and have private ownership of certain things, to keep the markets moving and have more efficient country.

  • There is little difference between Maoist Chinese and today's Islam. Both groups are indoctrinated senseless to the extent that they willingly go about destroying their own culture as well as those of others in order to "be closer to Mao/Allah". Both of them go about "othering" people and working themselves, entirely on their own, in to a strange sense of resentful grievance, for which they work up a sense of revenge. It is this brainwashing that is creepy – both in Mao's China as well as any madrassa of today. The only method to stop this idiocy from reaching its eventual outcome is being a sceptic of the whole thing and expressing one's scepticism – which is where freedom of speech and thought becomes crucial. Which is why all totalitarianisms – from communism to Islam – are hell-bent on controlling speech and actions. Blasphemy, heresy, kaffir/bourgeois all are common tropes between religious and non-religious totalitarianisms.

  • It’s freighting, I feel like a lot of this is currently happening in the USA. We are at the cultural vs affluent war part right now…

  • I wish someone would try to come in my house to tell me how to clean they won’t leave happy that’s for sure!!

  • what a cruel fraud leadership, ordinary chinese suffered until the mid 80's, that when they finally have enough to eat. communist killed more human being than any disease.

  • It’s freaking nuts how people turn on each other in communist regimes. They blame everyone but the leader that made the idiotic decisions. God help us that America never blindly follows a socialist or communist economy. It doesn’t work. Never has, never will.

  • One million killed? More like 20 million….
    Also, Tinamen Square in 1989 wasn't even related to the Cultural Revolution. Mao's revolution was nihilism in the darkest sense, a nihilism never seen in world history, that young, innocent minds should be brainwashed and turned into robots so filled with imaginary wrongs that they were turned into animals.
    1989 was about thinking people seeing the corruption of Communism. It was a redress of grievances against the government in the only way they knew how…..

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