Air National Guard | Wikipedia audio article

The Air National Guard (ANG), also known as
the Air Guard, is a federal military reserve force as well as the militia air force of
each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories
of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It, along with each state’s, district’s, commonwealth’s
or territory’s Army National Guard component, makes up the National Guard of each state
and the districts, commonwealths and territories as applicable.
When Air National Guard units are used under the jurisdiction of the state governor they
are fulfilling their militia role. However, if federalized by order of the President of
the United States, ANG units become an active part of the United States Air Force. They
are jointly administered by the states and the National Guard Bureau, a joint bureau
of the Army and Air Force that oversees the United States National Guard.
Air National Guard units are organized and federally recognized federal military reserve
forces in each of the fifty U.S. states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories
of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia of the United States.
Each state, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has a minimum
of one ANG flying unit with either assigned aircraft or aircraft shared with a unit of
the active duty Air Force or the Air Force Reserve under an “Associate” arrangement.
The ANG of the territories of Guam and the Virgin Islands have no aircraft assigned and
perform ground support functions. Air National Guard activities may be located on active
duty air force bases, air reserve bases, naval air stations/joint reserve bases, or air national
guard bases and stations which are either independent military facilities or collocated
as tenants on civilian-controlled joint civil-military airports.
ANG units typically operate under Title 32 USC. However, when operating under Title 10
USC all ANG units are operationally gained by an active duty USAF major command (MAJCOM).
ANG units of the Combat Air Forces (CAF) based in the Continental United States (CONUS),
plus a single air control squadron of the Puerto Rico ANG, are gained by the Air Combat
Command (ACC). CONUS-based ANG units in the Mobility Air Forces (MAF), plus the Puerto
Rico ANG’s airlift wing and the Virgin Islands ANG’s civil engineering squadron are gained
by the Air Mobility Command (AMC). The vast majority of ANG units fall under
either ACC or AMC. However, there remain a few exceptions, such as the Alaska ANG, Hawaii
ANG and Guam ANG, whose CAF and MAF units are operationally gained by Pacific Air Forces
(PACAF), while a smaller number of ANG units in CONUS are operationally gained by Air Education
and Training Command (AETC), Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC), Air Force Special
Operations Command (AFSOC), Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), and United States Air Forces
in Europe – Air Forces Africa (USAFE-AFAFRICA).==Overview==
Established under Title 10 and Title 32 of the U.S. Code, the Air National Guard is part
of the state National Guard and is divided up into units stationed in each of the 50
states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the two U.S. territories.
Each state, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have at least
one Air National Guard wing level unit with a flying mission, while the Air National Guard
in Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands are strictly non-flying support organizations at the group
or squadron level. When not in a “federal” status, the Air National
Guard operates under their respective state, commonwealth or territorial governor. The
exception to this rule is the District of Columbia Air National Guard (DC ANG). As a
federal district, the units of the DC ANG are under the direct jurisdiction of the President
of the United States though the office of the Commanding General, District of Columbia
National Guard. In their “state” role, the Air National Guard
may be called up for active duty by the governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and
disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes, floods, fires, and earthquakes. In the case
of the DC Air National Guard in this role, the Adjutant General of the District of Columbia
reports to the Mayor of the District of Columbia, who may only activate DC ANG assets for local
purposes after consulting with the President of the United States.
With the consent of state governors or equivalents, members or units of the Air National Guard
may be appointed, temporarily or indefinitely, to be federally recognized members of the
armed forces, in the active or inactive (e.g., reserve) service of the United States. If
federally recognized, the member or unit becomes part of the Air National Guard of the United
States, which is one of two reserve components of the United States Air Force, and part of
the National Guard of the United States. Because both state Air National Guard and the Air
National Guard of the United States relatively go hand-in-hand, they are both usually referred
to as just Air National Guard. Air National Guard of the United States units
or members may be called up for federal active duty in times of Congressionally sanctioned
war or national emergency. The President may also call up members and units of the Air
National Guard using a process called “federalization”, with the consent of state governors or equivalents,
to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or execute federal laws if the United States
or any of its states or territories are invaded or is in danger of invasion by a foreign nation,
or if there is a rebellion or danger of a rebellion against the authority of the federal
government, or if the president is unable to execute the laws of the United States with
the regular armed forces.The United States Air National Guard has about 110,000 men and
women in service. Like the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC), the ANG is often described
as a “reserve” force of “part-time airmen,” although the demands of maintaining modern
aircraft mean that many AFRC and ANG members work full-time, either as full-time Air Reserve
Technicians (ART) or Active Guard and Reserve (AGR) personnel. Even traditional part-time
air guardsmen, especially pilots, navigators/combat systems officers, air battle managers and
enlisted aircrew, often serve 100 or more man-days annually. As such, the concept of
Air National Guard service as representing only “one weekend a month and two weeks a
year” is not necessarily valid. The Air National Guard (ANG), in tandem with
the U.S. Air Force’s other reserve component, the strictly “federal” Air Force Reserve Command
(AFRC), comprise the “Air Reserve Component” of the U.S. Air Force under the”Total Force”
construct. Many ANG pilots work for commercial airlines,
but in the ANG they may train to fly any of the aircraft in the USAF inventory, with the
current exception of the B-1B Lancer and B-52 Stratofortress bombers, E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft,
KC-10 Extender and the AC-130 Gunship. The Georgia Air National Guard and the Kansas
Air National Guard previously flew the B-1B Lancer prior to converting to the E-8 Joint
STARS and KC-135R Stratotanker, respectively. In addition, the 131st Fighter Wing of the
Missouri Air National Guard transitioned from flying the F-15C/D Eagle at St. Louis International
Airport/Lambert Field Air National Guard Station to the B-2 Spirit at Whiteman AFB as an “Associate”
unit of the Regular Air Force’s 509th Bomb Wing and was re-designated as the 131st Bomb
Wing. In 2012, General Norton A. Schwartz, the then-Chief
of Staff of the Air Force, defended cutting nearly twice as many service members from
the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserve as from the active duty Regular Air Force
in order to maintain the service’s surge and rotational capabilities in the Active Component.
These proposals were eventually overruled and cancelled by the U.S. Congress.==Chain of command==
As state militia units, the units in the Air National Guard are not in the normal United
States Air Force chain of command. They are under the jurisdiction of the United States
National Guard Bureau unless they are federalized by order of the President of the United States.The
Air National Guard Readiness Center, a field operating center of the United States Air
Force at Joint Base Andrews, Maryland, performs operational and technical functions to ensure
combat readiness of Air National Guard units and is a channel of communication between
the Air Force and the National Guard Bureau regarding readiness and operations.Air National
Guard units are trained and equipped by the United States Air Force. The state (or equivalent)
ANG units, depending on their mission, are operationally gained by a major command of
the USAF if federalized. In addition, personnel and equipment are routinely federalized and
deployed by the USAF as part of Air and Space Expeditionary Forces, and are currently engaged
in combat operations under United States Air Forces Central (USAFCENT) as part of the Global
War on Terrorism. Air National Guard personnel are expected
to adhere to the same moral and physical standards as their “full-time” active duty Air Force
and “part-time” Air Force Reserve federal counterparts. The same ranks and insignia
of the U.S. Air Force are used by the Air National Guard, and Air National Guardsmen
are eligible to receive all United States military awards. The Air National Guard also
bestows a number of state awards for local services rendered in a service member’s home
state or equivalent.==History=====
Origins===The modern day National Guard in the United
States traces its origins to December 13, 1636, when the Massachusetts Bay Colony’s
General Court passed an act calling for the creation of three regiments, organizing existing
separate militia companies in and around Boston. The creation of the militia regiments was
caused by the perceived need to defend the Bay Colony against American Indians and from
other European countries operating in North America. This organization formed the basis
of subsequent colonial and, post-independence, state and territorial militias which later
became the Army National Guard. Being “local” ground forces affiliated with
the Army, militias were considered state-centric/territorial-centric in nature, this versus naval forces, which
were considered wholly activities of the federal government. This distinction accounts for
why there are no National Guard components in the U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps or U.S.
Coast Guard. Because the present day U.S. Air Force evolved from the U.S. Army, it was
only natural that a separate Air National Guard would be established with the divestiture
of the former U.S. Army Air Forces and its establishment as a separate and independent
U.S. Air Force in 1947. The Air National Guard was officially established
in law as a separate reserve component on 18 September 1947, concurrent with the establishment
of the U.S. Air Force. However, National Guard aviation emerged before World War I with aviation
units in Army National Guard organizations.In April 1908, a group of enthusiasts organized
an “aeronautical corps” at the Park Avenue Armory in New York City to learn ballooning.
They were members of the 1st Company, Signal Corps, New York National Guard. Although they
received instruction and assembled a balloon, it was not clear whether members of the unit
had ever actually ascended in it. In 1910 the unit raised $500 to finance its first
aircraft.During the Mexican Border Crisis of 1915 Captain Raynal Cawthorne Bolling organized
and took command of a unit that became the 1st Aero Company, New York National Guard.
It trained at Mineola Field, Mineola, Long Island. It is recognized as the ANG’s oldest
unit and its lineage is carried by the 102d Rescue Squadron of the New York Air National
Guard. On 13 July 1916, the 1st Aero Company mobilized during the border crisis with Mexico.
the unit was called into federal service when the Mexican revolution spilled over the border
into the United States. Bolling’s unit was joined at Mineola by the 2nd Aero Company
of Buffalo and 12 Guard officers from other states. Both air units remained at Mineola
during the crisis.When the United States entered World War I in April 1917, the War Department
decided that it would not mobilize National Guard air units. Instead, individual Guard
volunteers provided a major pool for the Army to draw aviators from. They were required
to leave the Guard and enter the Signal Corps Reserve if they wished to fly in the war.
About 100 National Guard pilots joined the newly formed United States Army Air Service.
Guardsmen also played prominent roles in air operations in France. On 14 April 1918, Tennessee
Guardsman Reed Chambers flew with Eddie Rickenbacker and David Peterson of the 94th Pursuit Squadron
from Villeneuve, France on the first combat mission ever ordered by an American commander
of a U.S. squadron of American pilots. At least four Guardsmen—Chambers, Field Kindley
(Kansas), Reed Landis (Illinois), and Martinus Stenseth (Minnesota) – became aces. 2d Lieutenant
Erwin R. Bleckley of Kansas was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously for his heroism
as an aerial observer. After the armistice and the return of the American Expeditionary
Force in 1919, the wartime squadrons were demobilized and inactivated.===Interwar period===After the war, National Guard aviation was
placed on a permanent basis over the initial opposition of the Army’s General Staff. In
1920, the Militia Bureau and the Army Air Service agreed on a plan for re-organizing
National Guard aviation units. On 17 January 1921, the 109th Observation Squadron of the
Minnesota National Guard (1921–1941) became the first post World War I air unit to receive
federal recognition. During the interwar period, 29 observation squadrons were established.
They were either integral elements of National Guard infantry divisions or assigned to Army
corps aviation.An aviator in the 110th Observation Squadron of the Missouri National Guard (1923–1943)
became the most famous National Guard pilot during the interwar period: Captain Charles
A. Lindbergh. His service illustrated the close ties between military and commercial
aviation. Trained to fly by the Army, he joined the 110th Observation Squadron in November
1925. The following year, he became chief pilot for an airmail venture started by fellow
110th pilots Major William Robertson and his brother Frank. After Lindbergh made his historic
solo trans-Atlantic flight in May 1927, he recalled his service in the Guard fondly.After
the Fall of France, during 1940–1941, approximately 4,800 experienced National Guard aviation
personnel were mobilized from their observation squadrons. They provided a significant augmentation
of the Army’s rapidly expanding air arm during a critical period. Most Guard air units were
stripped of many key personnel, and the units were federalized into the regular Army Air
Corps and were re-equipped with more modem aircraft. Some of the early-deploying squadrons
maintained a degree of unit integrity and cohesion. But, most lost their character and
identity as Guard organizations during World War II.The units were transformed from observation
organizations into reconnaissance, liaison, fighter, and bombardment squadrons. They served
in every major combat theater during the war. The most significant wartime contribution
of National Guard aviators was to train and lead the large numbers of volunteer airmen
who had entered the AAF. That role was epitomized by Lt Col Addison E. Baker, a Guardsman from
Akron, Ohio. On 1 August 1943, Baker commanded the VIII Bomber Command’s 93d Bombardment
Group on a daring but ill-fated low-level attack against enemy oil refineries at Ploiești,
Romania. Baker was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic leadership.===Post-World War II Air National Guard===The Air National Guard as we know it today,
a separate reserve component of the United States Air Force in addition to the purely
“federal” Air Force Reserve, was a product of the politics of postwar planning and inter-service
rivalry during World War II. The Army Air Forces leaders who planned and maneuvered
for an independent postwar Air Force during World War II had little confidence in the
reserves of the U.S. Army, especially the state-dominated National Guard. On the contrary,
those leaders expected to build the largest and most modern standing air force possible.
However, domestic politics and American history forced them to significantly alter their plans.Determined
to include an Air Force National Guard in the postwar U.S. military establishment during
World War II, the National Guard Association of the United States flexed its considerable
political muscle. It compelled the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) to plan for a significant
Air Force National Guard once the overseas fighting ended. General of the Army George
C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff, also pressured the USAAF to revise its ambitious
plans for a large postwar active duty force. When President Harry S. Truman instituted
dramatic postwar military budget cuts, he split defense dollars evenly among the Army,
Navy, and Air Force. That move also required the Air Force to plan for a far smaller active
duty service than it had envisaged. As a result, the Air Force needed both reserve components,
the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserve, to help fill the gap.As the wartime Army Air
Forces demobilized in 1945 and 1946, inactivated unit designations were allotted and transferred
to various State and Territorial Air National Guard bureaus to provide them unit designations
to re-establish them as Air National Guard units. Initially, the National Guard Bureau
(NGB) developed a table of organization for the Air National Guard to include at least
one unit allocation per state. In addition, the territories of Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto
Rico were allocated one unit designation each. A table of organization was developed in which
a series of twelve ANG Wings were allocated to provide command and control over separate
regions of the United States; each Wing controlled three or four Groups within the region, and
the Groups controlled squadrons within the region, sometimes distributed over several
states. On 21 August 1946, inactivated USAAF group
and squadron designations were transferred from the Department of the Army to the National
Guard Bureau. The units were re-designated with unit designations within the 101–299
range and allotments were made to Adjutant General of the states and territories whose
mission it was to organize the units being allocated and prepare them for federal recognition
by the NGB. The combat element was organized into twelve
wings which were then divided into 20 fighter groups totaling 62 squadrons, two light bombardment
groups comprising four squadrons, and five composite groups with twelve fighter squadrons
and six bombardment squadrons. Command and control organizations were: Individual state squadrons were assigned to
either Groups or Wings, depending on circumstances, allocations, and gaining commands of the Army
Air Forces. As individual units were organized, federally recognized, and activated, the Army
Air Forces provided them airfields, equipment and surplus aircraft. Once formed, the units
began obtaining federal recognition, and the state Air National Guard units were established.
Its primary units were 84 flying squadrons, mostly equipped with P-51 Mustang and P-47
Thunderbolt fighters with air defense of the continental United States as their main mission,
its units under the jurisdiction of the USAAF Air Defense Command. Tactical Air Command
also had several ANG units being assigned B-26 Invader medium bombers.18 September 1947,
however, is considered the Air National Guard’s official birth, concurrent with the establishment
of the United States Air Force as a separate branch of the United States military under
the National Security Act. The postwar Air National Guard force of the late 1940s included
58,000 members. Between 1946 and 1949, all of the initial allotment of units received
federal recognition in the CONUS. The Hawaii Territory ANG received recognition and was
activated on 4 November 1946; the Puerto Rico ANG on 23 November 1947, and the Alaska Territory
ANG on 15 September 1952. At the end of October 1950, the Air National
Guard converted to the wing-base (Hobson Plan) organization. As a result, the former Army
Air Forces Wings which were allocated were inactivated by the National Guard Bureau returned
to the control of the Department of the Air Force on 31 October 1950. The personnel and
equipment of the inactivated wings were transferred to new Air National Guard wings which were
established, recognized and activated on 1 November 1950.
After World War II, the Air National Guard developed an unfortunate reputation as a glorified
“flying club” for World War II combat veterans. Not only did the units and individuals lack
specific wartime missions, their equipment, especially aircraft, was obsolete and their
training was usually deplorable. Once mobilized, those Air National Guardsmen proved to be
almost totally unprepared for combat. Regardless of their previous training and equipment,
Air National Guard units were assigned almost at random to major air commands. It took months
and months for ANG units to become combat ready; some units never succeeded.===Korean War===During the Korean War, some 45,000 Air Guardsmen,
80 percent of the force, were mobilized. That callup exposed the weaknesses of the United
States’ various military reserve programs, including the ANG. Sixty-six of the Air Guard’s
ninety-two flying squadrons, along with numerous support units, were mobilized. Once in federal
service, they proved to be unprepared for combat. Many key Air Guardsmen were used as
fillers elsewhere in the Air Force. It took three to six months for some ANG units to
become combat ready. Some never did.Eventually, they made substantial contributions to the
war effort and the Air Force’s global buildup. In the Far East, the ANG’s 136th and 116th
Fighter-Bomber Wings compiled excellent combat records flying F-84 Thunderjets. Air Guardsmen
flew 39,530 combat sorties and destroyed 39 enemy aircraft. But, 101 of them were either
killed or declared missing in action during the conflict. Four Air Guardsmen—Captains
Robert Love (California), Clifford Jolley (Utah), and Robinson Risner (Oklahoma), plus
Major James Hagerstrom (Texas) – became aces, with some, such as Risner, later transferring
to the Regular Air Force. Largely as a result of the Korean War experience, senior ANG and
Air Force leaders became seriously committed to building the Air National Guard as an effective
reserve component.With the reinforcement of the Far East Air Forces (FEAF), Air National
Guard squadrons were deployed to Europe in late 1950, being assigned to newly constructed
bases in France as part of United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE). These deployments
helped reinforce the NATO commitment of the United States in case the combat in Korea
became part of a wider conflict with the Soviet Union. Beginning in February 1951, mobilized
units were assigned to Air Defense Command (ADC), Strategic Air Command (SAC) and Tactical
Air Command (TAC), replacing or augmenting active duty units. Air National Guardsmen
assigned to ADC also were assigned to various aircraft control and warning as well as radar
calibration units. Their organizations either strengthened American air defenses or were
converted to tactical air control units that directed Air Force fighter aircraft in the
continental United States, Alaska, Newfoundland, Europe, and French Morocco.As a result of
the federalization of the Air National Guard, ADC, SAC and TAC established additional wings
for command and control of the federalized units. These were as follows: Air National Guardsmen began to be demobilized
in July 1952, with their units being inactivated by the active duty air force. Subsequently,
the individual state Air National Guard bureaus reactivated and reformed the units beginning
in January 1953. The USAF-established wings were also allocated to their states.===Runway alert program===Although Korean War hostilities ended in July
1953, the Cold War with the Soviet Union persisted. The initial mobilization fiasco forced the
Air Force to achieve an accommodation with the Air National Guard and to thoroughly revamp
its entire reserve system. Because of the problems associated with the Korean War mobilizations,
the Air Force and its reserve components pioneered new approaches like the runway alert program
to reserve training and management.The Air Division chief at the National Guard Bureau
wanted to find an innovative way to provide additional training for fighter pilots after
their units were demobilized. At the same time, Air Defense Command could not call upon
sufficient active duty Air Force units to defend the continental United States against
the Soviet air threat. It was proposed to employ ANG pilots full-time from “strategically
placed” Air National Guard units to perform “air intercept missions” against unidentified
aircraft entering United States air space. In addition they would “provide simulated
fighter attacks against the Strategic Air Command’s nuclear-capable bombers.”Using Air
National Guardsmen from the 138th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at Hancock Field, Syracuse, New York,
and the 194th Fighter-Bomber Squadron at Hayward, California, the experiment began on 1 March
1953. It proved a great success and in August eight squadrons began “standing alert” using
volunteer aircrews on a rotating basis for 14 hours a day. In October, nine more squadrons
joined the program. The ANG runway alert program required some planes and pilots to be available
around-the-clock to become airborne within minutes of being notified to scramble. At
its peak in the mid-1950s, all 70 Air National Guard fighter squadrons participated in that
program, although that number was reduced to 25 by 1961 due to budget constraints. Most
of the runway alert exercises involved interceptions of SAC bombers; although a few actual scrambles
turned out to be interceptions of late or off-course commercial airliners. The runway
alert experiment in 1953 marked the beginning of the Air National Guard’s modern homeland
defense role. Moreover, it was the first broad effort to integrate reserve units into a major
Air Force combat mission in peacetime on a continuing basis using volunteers.===Aircraft modernization===Originally the Air National Guard was designed
as a combat reserve force. After World War II, its flying units consisted of 72 fighter
and 12 light bomber squadrons equipped with obsolescent World War II propeller-driven
aircraft while the active duty Air Force transitioned to jet fighters. Although it had no airlift
or tanker units, the Air National Guard’s flying units were equipped with a small number
of liaison, trainer, and transport planes, and the Air National Guard actively sought
out new missions and aircraft.With the end of World War II, the Air Force dropped “Air
Commando” or special operations units from its rolls, although they were revived for
the Korean War. After that conflict, in April 1955, the Air National Guard acquired its
first special operations unit when the 129th Air Resupply Squadron was federally recognized
and two C-46 Commandos were delivered to it at Hayward, California. It was allocated to
the Air Resupply And Communications Service (ARCS), a predecessor organization of today’s
Air Force Special Operations CommandAs its F-51 Mustangs and F-47 Thunderbolts became
more and more obsolescent in the jet age of the 1950s, the force structure gradually changed
to include a significant number of airlift, tanker, and specialized combat-support units.
As the Air National Guard expanded, additional squadrons, including airlift units as well
as Air Resupply and Communications units, were established. Additional command and control
groups and wings were also established by the National Guard Bureau and allocated to
the states. The ANG however, unlike the active duty USAF, did not inactivate its combat groups
during the 1950s as part of the tri-deputate organization. Many of the combat groups remained
assigned to the wings from which they were derived. It wasn’t until 1974 that the ANG
fully adapted the USAF tri-deputate organization and inactivated its combat groups, assigning
its operational squadrons directly to the wings.
The Air National Guard aggressively worked to preserve its existing flying units by obtaining
the most modern aircraft available. Some existing Air National Guard fighter units equipped
with piston-driven fighters, however, could not convert to jets because the runways at
the local airports where they were based were too short. In addition, some local leaders
simply did not want jet fighters operating in their communities.The ANG considered replacing
the fighter squadrons in these instances with transport aircraft a viable option for overcoming
runway issues or community objections and also was a way to keep experienced senior
aviators in the cockpit. During the late 1950s, the Air Force allowed several Air National
Guard units to trade in their aging piston-driven fighters for second-line transports. New Jersey’s
newly organized 150th Air Transport Squadron (Light) became the first pure airlift unit
in the Air National Guard on 1 February 1956. It received Curtiss C-46D Commandos. Two other
aeromedical transport squadrons followed that year, primarily because of the impracticality
of converting their locations to modern jet fighter operations. In 1959, the Air Force,
in order to save operating funds, planned to phase out 48 C-97 Stratofreighters before
their replacements were available to the active force. The Air National Guard requested these
aircraft be sent to ANG units, and in January 1960, units in California, Minnesota, New
Hampshire, New York, and Oklahoma began trading in their obsolete fighters for C-97s.Additionally,
the Air National Guard also took on an air refueling mission. The Air National Guard
received its first KC-97 Stratofreighter aerial tankers in July and August 1961. During that
period, the 108th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron in Illinois, the 126th Fighter-Interceptor
Squadron in Wisconsin, and the 145th Air Transport Squadron in Ohio, converted to KC-97Fs and
were redesignated air refueling squadrons.===Cold War===World War II had left the city of Berlin 100
miles deep within East German territory, controlled by the Soviet Union, and divided into Soviet,
British, French, and United States zones of occupation, administered under local agreements
which did not guarantee Western access to the city. Responding to a series of Soviet
actions in 1948, the three western allies consolidated their zones and formed the city
of West Berlin. For fifteen years the western powers maintained a tenacious hold on West
Berlin under periodic harassment of the Soviets. On 13 August 1961, Berliners woke up to find
they lived in a divided city. A wall now separated East Berlin from West Berlin. With that provocative
act, the Soviet Union ratcheted up the Cold War.President John F. Kennedy mobilized a
limited number of Reserve and Guard units, dispatching 11 ANG fighter squadrons to Europe.
All the Guard units were in place within a month of their respective mobilization days,
although they required additional training, equipment, and personnel after being called
up. In all, some 21,000 Air Guardsmen were mobilized during the 1961 Berlin Crisis. By August 1962, the units mobilized for the
Berlin Crisis returned to state control. They had hardly resumed normal operations when
President Kennedy announced on 22 October 1962 that the Soviet Union had placed nuclear
warheads in Cuba, only 90 miles from Florida. With the Cuban Missile Crisis, Air National
Guard fighter units trained for “no notice” deployments, and volunteer ANG airlift crews
and their aircraft augmented Air Force global airlift operations. Air National Guard bases
hosted Air Force fighters and bombers dispersed there to avoid a possible Soviet nuclear response
to the crisis. But in the end, no ANG unit was federalized.As a result of these two Cold
War incidents, from January through December 1963, for the first time Air National Guard
airlift units began routinely deploying overseas during their annual training periods, primarily
to Europe, to exercise their wartime missions. Air National Guard transport units hauled
cargo for the Military Air Transport Service (MATS) while training for their wartime global
airlift role.With the Regular Air Force tanker fleet being used more and more in Southeast
Asia after 1965 to support combat operations in South Vietnam, combined with the concurrent
demands of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) for performing its nuclear deterrence mission,
both volunteer Air Force Reservists and Air National Guardsmen in air refueling units
participated in worldwide air refueling missions during their Annual Training or other additional
active duty periods in order to supplement the active duty tanker force. The Texas Air
National Guard’s 136th Air Refueling Wing inaugurated Operation Creek Party on 1 May
1967, because the Regular Air Force did not have enough KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft available
in Europe to train its fighter pilots in USAFE. The operation eventually involved nine ANG
air refueling groups that rotated approximately every two weeks to Rhein-Main Air Base in
West Germany.The Vietnam War provided the next significant test for the Air National
Guard. However, for largely domestic political reasons, President Lyndon B. Johnson chose
not to mobilize most of the nation’s reserve forces before 1968. His reasons for not mobilizing
reserve forces were many. Primarily, he did not believe that the war in Vietnam justified
the dramatic act of mobilizing Reserve and National Guard forces. He accepted the need
to fight the war, but he wanted to prosecute it as quietly as possible, not attracting
too much attention at home and risk jeopardizing his domestic programs. He also wanted to avoid
drawing the Communist Chinese into the war or the attention of the Soviet Union, the
latter which might view the mobilization of Reserve and National Guard units as “escalatory”
within a larger Cold War context. Moreover, recalling Reservists’ complaints of inactivity
following the Berlin mobilization of 1961, he was also reluctant to recall Reservists
and National Guardsmen without the assurance that their employment would significantly
affect the course of the war, an assurance no official in his administration could provide.
As a result, even though still populated by many World War II and Korean War combat veterans,
the Reserves and the National Guard acquired ill-deserved reputations during this period
as havens for relatively affluent, young white men with no prior active duty military service
to serve as officers or enlisted personnel as a means to avoid the draft into the active
duty U.S. Army in an enlisted status.Air National Guard airlift units, however, began flying
regularly to Japan and South Vietnam beginning in 1966 to support Military Airlift Command
(MAC) operations. These flights continued on a regular basis until 1972. In addition,
between August 1965 and September 1969, Air National Guard domestic and offshore aeromedical
evacuation flights freed active duty Air Force resources for such missions in Southeast Asia
(SEA).However, after the 1968 Tet Offensive in which the Communist North Vietnamese and
Vietcong troops attacked positions throughout the Republic of Vietnam, the Pentagon dispatched
four Air National Guard fighter squadrons to that nation. In addition, the Pueblo Crisis
in Korea also saw mobilized Air Force Reservists, Air National Guardsmen and Naval Reservists
in flying units. That crisis prompted the third partial Air National Guard mobilization
since the end of World War II, and eventually two ANG fighter squadrons were dispatched
to South Korea. However, the Pueblo crisis ended without a resort to combat.In July 1970,
two EC-121 “Super Constellations” from the Pennsylvania ANG’s 193d Tactical Electronic
Warfare Squadron departed their home station for Korat RTAFB, Thailand. During the next
six months, approximately 60 Air National Guardsmen were rotated through the latter
installation on 30- to 60-day tours in Operation “Commando Buzz,” their aircraft serving as
flying radar stations and airborne control platforms for U.S. air operations in Southeast
Asia (SEA) until January 1971.The 355th Tactical Fighter Squadron (355th TFS) in 1967 was a
Regular Air Force squadron assigned to the 354th Tactical Fighter Wing at Myrtle Beach
AFB, South Carolina. From January 1968 until June 1969, the 355th TFS changed from a Regular
Air Force unit composed almost entirely of recent SEA returnees to a composite squadron
consisting of approximately 50% of whose personnel assets were composed of activated ANG members
from the 119th TFS of the New Jersey ANG) and the 121st TFS of the District of Columbia
ANG). The 355th deployed on temporary duty (TDY) to Phù Cát Air Base on 14 May 1968
with 13 of its 30 pilots being ANG members. The transfer became permanent on 26 June 1968,
at which time all TDY members were offered the opportunity to volunteer for a full year’s
tour. All 13 ANG pilots volunteered, one of whom was killed in action a month later. By
Christmas 1968, 87% of the squadron’s support personnel were ANG members. Five of the ANG
pilots also volunteered as Misty Forward Air Controllers (FACs) flying the F-100 Super
Sabre. In all, ANG pilots were awarded 23 Silver Stars, 47 Distinguished Flying Crosses,
and 46 Bronze Stars with Combat V for valor while stationed at Phu Cat.===Total Force Concept===
As part of the re-thinking of military concepts after the Vietnam War, beginning in the early
1970s with the establishment of the All-Volunteer Armed Forces, both the Air National Guard
and Air Force Reserve force planning and policymaking were influenced by the “Total Force” Concept
and have remained so to this day. The concept sought to strengthen and rebuild public confidence
in the reserve forces while saving money by reducing the size of the active duty force.
In practical terms, the Total Force policy sought to ensure that all policymaking, planning,
programming, and budgetary activities within the Defense Department considered active and
reserve forces concurrently and determined the most efficient mix of those forces in
terms of costs versus contributions to national security. The policy also insured that Reservists
and Guardsmen, not draftees, would be the first and primary source of manpower to augment
the active duty forces in any future crisis. With the active forces being reduced after
the end of the Vietnam War, a significant number of older C-130A Hercules tactical airlifters
became available for the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve, which allowed the Korean
War-era C-119 Flying Boxcars and C-124 Globemasters to be retired. However, the Total Force Concept
led to pressure to upgrade the reserve forces to front-line aircraft and beginning in 1974,
new Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV) A-7D Corsair II ground attack aircraft began to be sent to
Air National Guard units directly from the LTV manufacturing plant in Dallas. As A-10
Thunderbolt IIs began to replace the A-7Ds in the Regular Air Force in the mid and late
1970s, additional A-7D aircraft were transferred to the ANG. F-4 Phantom IIs began to be received
by the ANG in the late 1970s with the F-15A Eagle and F-16A Fighting Falcons coming into
the active inventory and ANG’s F-100 Super Sabres being retired.Starting in 1975, the
ANG began conducting operations in Latin America and by the late 1970s to defend the Panama
Canal and to provide training support, embassy resupply, search and rescue, and counterdrug
operations. In addition, the ANG airlifted supplies and hardware to remote radar sites
and performed aerial mapping operations.In June 1979, the 137th Tactical Airlift Wing
of the Oklahoma Air National Guard marked the first time an ANG airlift unit was equipped
with brand new transport aircraft: it received four factory-fresh C-130H Hercules aircraft.
Several years later, Congress institutionalized the practice of purchasing limited amounts
of new weapons and equipment for the reserve components via National Guard and Reserve
Equipment (NG&RE) funding allocations. Under the auspices of this separate appropriation
for Guard and Reserve equipment established in 1982 under President Ronald Reagan, 69
brand new C-130s entered the ANG’s inventory from 1984 to 1991.In July 1972, Air National
Guard units began supporting Air Force tanker task forces overseas with second-line KC-97
Stratofreighter propeller-driven tankers and volunteer crews when needed. Triggered by
a 1974 decision by Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger to save money, the Ohio Air
National Guard’s 145th Air Refueling Squadron acquired the ANG’s first jet tanker in April
1975 when it began converting from KC-97Ls to KC-135A Stratotankers. Altogether, the
Air Force transferred 128 older KC-135s to the air reserve components to retire the slow
prop-driven tankers, which modern fighters had to reduce speed to nearly stall speed
in order to refuel from.During the 1980s, changes in the Air National Guard’s force
structure and readiness were primarily driven by President Reagan’s military buildup and
the need to prepare for a possible war between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
and the Warsaw Pact in Central Europe. The ANG focused on modernization, more realistic
combat training, increased readiness, and personnel growth, primarily in nonflying,
mission support units. In 1979, Tactical Air Command assumed the atmospheric air defense
mission of the United States with the inactivation of Aerospace Defense Command (ADCOM or ADC).
ADC fighter interceptor units were initially realigned into a component called Air Defense,
Tactical Air Command (ADTAC), at the level of an Air Division. In 1985, First Air Force
(1 AF) was reactivated by TAC and given the mission to provide, train and equip ADTAC
combat ready forces. Upon its reactivation, First Air Force was composed of units of both
the active Air Force and the Air National Guard. In the years since its third activation,
more of the responsibility for the defense of American air sovereignty was shifted to
the Air National Guard. By the 1990s, 90 percent of the air defense mission was being handled
by the Air National Guard. In October 1997, First Air Force became an Air National Guard
numbered air force, charged with the air defense of the North American continent.
Instead of increasing the number of units, the National Guard Bureau authorized units
to increase the number of aircraft assigned to them when the Air Force made those planes
available. In 1982, the South Carolina Air National Guard’s 169th Tactical Fighter Group
began receiving new General Dynamics F-16A Fighting Falcons. In Air Force-wide competitions,
ANG units and individuals frequently placed high or won. This was due in no small part
to the ANG units being manned by more senior pilots and weapon systems officers, most of
whom had recent combat experience as prior active duty officers in the Regular Air Force
and who continued to hone their skills in fighter aircraft while their active duty contemporaries
had to leave the cockpit for career enhancing non-flying staff assignments. The 169th Tactical
Fighter Group garnered top team honors in the Air Force’s worldwide gunnery contest,
Gunsmoke ’89. During the late 1980s, the Air National Guard’s F-106 Delta Darts, F-4 Phantom
IIs and A-7D Corsair IIs were being replaced by F-15A and F-15B Eagles and F-16A and F-16B
Fighting Falcons as more advanced models such as the F-15C/D and F-16C/D were brought into
active service with the Regular Air Force.===Post Cold War era===
The expiration of the Soviet Union, beginning with the fall of the Berlin Wall and Glasnost
in 1989 and culminating in the USSR’s breakup into its republics in 1991, constituted a
major upheaval that continued to influence global politics into the 21st century.====Panama====
In December 1989 and January 1990, ANG volunteers participated in Operation Just Cause, the
invasion of Panama, to secure the arrest of Panamanian dictator and accused drug lord,
General Manuel Noriega. Air National Guard aircrews already deployed TDY to Howard AFB,
Panama also participated in Just Cause. Volunteer C-130 crews completed 181 sorties moving 3,107
passengers and 551.3 tons of cargo. In addition, Air National Guard A-7 Corsair II attack jets
from the South Dakota Air National Guard’s 114th Tactical Fighter Group and the Ohio
Air National Guard’s 180th Tactical Fighter Group flew 34 combat missions in support of
the invasion. However, the Air National Guard and the Total Force concept would be fully
tested in the two major operations of the 1990s: Operation Desert Shield and the first
Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm.In August 1990, ANG F-15 and F-16 fighter units initiated
similar rotational service for Operation Coronet Nighthawk, the successor to Operation Volant
Oak, out of Howard Air Force Base, Panama. Those units monitored suspected airborne drug
traffickers transiting Central America as well as the adjacent oceans. As the 1999 transfer
of the Panama Canal to Panama approached, the Air National Guard began turning the operation
over to civilian contractors. The last Air National Guardsmen completed their deployments
to these South American sites in 1999.====Persian Gulf crisis====Following the seizure of Kuwait by Iraqi forces
in August 1990, the Air Force turned to both of its reserve components for help and was
swamped with volunteers. Before President George H. W. Bush mobilized Reservists and
National Guardsmen on 22 August 1990, nearly 1,300 Air National Guardsmen actually entered
active duty as volunteers. Initially, most of them concentrated on aerial refueling and
airlifting American forces to the Persian Gulf region. The first two ANG units to volunteer
before the President’s mobilization order were the 105th Military Airlift Group of the
New York Air National Guard, and the 172d Military Airlift Group of the Mississippi
Air National Guard. Respectively, they flew the C-5A Galaxy and the C-141B Starlifter. Altogether, 12,456 Air National Guardsmen
participated in Air Force operations during the Persian Gulf crisis/first Gulf War. When
called upon, Air National Guardsmen were immediately prepared to perform their missions alongside
their active Air Force counterparts. They did not need additional training or new equipment
to do their jobs. They were integrated into most of the Air Force’s operational missions,
flying strategic airlift and aerial refueling sorties, and manning aerial ports. Air National
Guardsmen also flew fighter, attack, aerial reconnaissance, special operations, and tactical
theater airlift missions.Compared to previous mobilizations, ANG units and individuals during
Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm were much better prepared to perform their
missions upon entry into federal service. Units were well equipped and well trained.
As planned, they were able to respond much more rapidly and effectively than in previous
call-ups. They were integrated into operations with their active duty and Air Force Reserve
counterparts with a minimum of disruption and delay.In a new concept at the time, relatively
few ANG outfits were mobilized as units. Instead, the Air Force called up packages of equipment
and personnel that were developed after the crisis began. Mobilizing entire flying units
and maintaining their integrity while in federal service, although desirable, would no longer
be the only acceptable approach to supporting the Air Force in a crisis. Instead the Air
National Guard would be flexible in its response in order to fit the situation. That could
involve individual volunteers, tailored packages of volunteers, or mobilized Air National Guardsmen
developed in response to specific contingencies.After the first Gulf War ended in 1991, air power
continued to play a significant role in containing Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq, as did a
naval blockade and United Nations economic sanctions. Together those forces also crippled
the economic and military foundations of Hussein’s power. The Air National Guard participated
widely in that long campaign, which featured U.S. and Coalition aircraft maintaining two
no-fly zones over portions of Iraq: Operation Southern Watch (OSW) and Operation Northern
Watch (ONW). In addition, ANG units provided humanitarian aid to the Kurdish population
in northern Iraq. Later deploying units to Turkey participated in Operation Northern
Watch that was focused strictly on enforcing the no-fly zone above the 36th parallel in
Iraq as mandated by the UN and did not include humanitarian relief for the Kurds.====Front-line aircraft====
Following the first Gulf War, the Air National Guard’s senior leadership in the National
Guard Bureau began to adapt their organization for the post-Cold War era in a series of far-reaching
discussions with top echelon Air Force personnel, state officials, unit leaders, and members
of Congress. Essentially, the Air Force agreed it would attempt to retain all ANG and Air
Force Reserve flying units, while reducing its own as a cost-effective way to maintain
a post-Cold War force structure. However, as limited amounts of newer equipment became
available from a smaller Air Force, and budgets tightened, the ANG would reduce the numbers
of aircraft assigned to each unit. If necessary, it would combine units at the same locations.
Some organizations would close down, but only as a last resort. Aided by the newer aircraft from the shrinking
Air Force inventory, the Air National Guard modernized and reshaped its fleet after the
Cold War. The size and composition of the ANG’s aircraft inventory changed significantly
after 1991. From 1991 to 2001 the ANG experienced an enormous growth in large aircraft including
C-130H Hercules tactical airlifters, upgraded KC-135E and KC-135R Stratotankers, and B-1B
Lancer strategic bombers at the expense of smaller fighter planes. One of the most critical
modernization challenges facing the ANG involved its extensive fleet of older model F-16As
and F-16Bs. As its goal, the ANG sought to acquire F-16C Block 25/30/32 aircraft, enabling
ANG fighter units to have around-the-clock, all-weather, precision strike capabilities
against surface targets. The first F-16As and F-16Bs to be retired from service entered
storage with AMARC at Davis-Monthan AFB during 1993, with three aircraft from the 138th Fighter
Squadron of the New York Air National Guard, followed by 17 examples from the 160th Fighter
Squadron of the Alabama Air National Guard, which were updated with F-16Cs and F-16Ds
from the shrinking active duty force.In the general military drawdown following the end
of the Cold War, many European-based F-15C Eagles previously assigned to USAFE were also
transferred stateside. The 101st Fighter Squadron of the Massachusetts Air National Guard received
new F-15Cs that were previously with the 32d Fighter Group, Soesterberg AB, Netherlands
in 1994. Other F-15A / F-15B units were upgraded to the F-15C and F-15D as they became available
during the mid-1990s.In the early 1990s, with the disestablishment of Strategic Air Command
(SAC), Tactical Air Command (TAC) and Military Airlift Command (MAC) and their replacement
with Air Combat Command (ACC) and Air Mobility Command (AMC), all Air National Guard units
transitioned to the objective wing organization. Most flying unit designations were simplified
to “Airlift” or “Fighter” or “Air Refueling” or “Rescue”, with flying squadrons being assigned
to Operations Groups. Also, on 1 October 1994, in accordance with the USAF “one base-one
wing” policy, all Air National Guard flying units previously designated as a “group” had
their status changed to a “wing” no later than 1 October 1995. Additionally, ANG stations
hosting flying units were re-designated as an “Air National Guard Base” if they were
not collocated on an active duty installation.====Balkans operations====
Other overseas operations during the 1990s took Air National Guardsmen to Somalia, the
former Yugoslavia, Haiti, and Rwanda to augment the Air Force in a series of contingencies
and humanitarian relief operations. Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units would generally
assume responsibility for an operation for 30 to 90 days, and then rotate their personnel
on 15- to 30-day tours to a given location until the commitment ended. In July 1992, crews and C-130s from West Virginia’s
167th Airlift Group inaugurated ANG involvement in Operation Provide Promise by flying food
and relief supplies from Rhein-Main AB, Germany to Sarajevo, Bosnia’s capital, which had a
population of 380,000. That operation expanded significantly the following February to include
airdrops of food and medicine to Muslim enclaves in eastern Bosnia blockaded by Bosnian Serbs.
Altogether, personnel and C-130s from 12 ANG units participated in Provide Promise. During
the operation, Air Force, ANG, and Air Force Reserve transports flew 4,533 sorties and
delivered 62,802 metric tons of cargo. They performed airlift, airdrop, and medical evacuation
missions. The Americans made a major contribution to the overall allied effort, which involved
airmen from 21 nations. The humanitarian airlift operation accounted for about 95 percent of
the aid delivered during the ​3 1⁄2-year siege of Sarajevo.On 2 April 1993, NATO troops
from Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, Germany, and Italy as well
as the United States launched Operation Deny Flight, a no-fly zone for Serbian aircraft
over Bosnia-Herzegovina. It enforced a March 1993 UN Security Council Resolution passed
to help prevent the war from spreading. The operation also provided close air support
to UN ground forces serving as peacekeepers, and air strikes against Serb weapons threatening
UN-designated safe areas in Bosnia. The first ANG fighter unit involved was the Connecticut
Air National Guard’s A-10-equipped 103d Fighter Group. Aircraft and personnel from the Maryland
Air National Guard’s 175th Fighter Group and Michigan Air National Guard’s 110th Fighter
Group joined the contingent from Connecticut. Along with unit personnel, the six Air National
Guard and six Air Force Reserve A-10s returned to their home stations in mid-January 1994
after flying 520 sorties and accumulating over 1,400 hours of Deny Flight flying time.
Air National Guard tanker support of Deny Flight began in June 1994 with the dispatch
of 10 KC-135s and 18 aircrews from six units to Istres Air Base, France, and Pisa Airport,
Italy. By the time Deny Flight ended on 20 December 1995, elements of seven Air Guard
fighter and 11 air refueling units had participated in it.Operation Deliberate Force, was initiated
in August 1995 after the Serbs shelled a Sarajevo marketplace killing 38 civilians and wounding
85 more. A contingent from the 104th Fighter Wing participated in the action. The intensity
of the bombing stunned the Serbs. Coupled with victories of an American-trained Croatian-Muslim
army in western Bosnia, that operation forced the Serbs to sue for peace. NATO halted the
bombing on 14 September 1995, and ended Deliberate Force six days later.The Air National Guard
returned to the Balkans in the mid-1990s as part of the NATO-led peacekeeping force in
Bosnia, Operation Joint Guard, and its successor, Operation Joint Forge. Volunteers from 13
Air National Guard airlift units provided 71 C-130s to Joint Forge. On average, ANG
airlift deployment packages consisted of approximately 75 personnel and two C-130 aircraft. They
were based at Ramstein AB, Germany, to provide the necessary airlift support for U.S. military
forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina and other locations across Europe.====Air Expeditionary Force (AEF) Concept
====In August 1998, the Air Force inaugurated
a new concept. Based on experiences during the Persian Gulf War and numerous deployments
to the Balkans and other contingency operations, it organized more than 2,000 aircraft, including
those of Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard units, into 10 Air Expeditionary Forces
(AEFs), later designated as the Aerospace Expeditionary Forces, and, in 2007, the Air
and Space Expeditionary Forces. AEFs would rotate in order to ease the strain of increased
post-Cold War operations overseas. The AEF promised to spread the burden of deployments
more widely among flying units, Active Duty, Air Force Reserve or Air National Guard. Moreover,
the timing of rotations became more predictable. Greater predictability would enable Airmen,
especially those in the Air Reserve Component, to better manage the competing demands of
families, civilian careers, and military service. Air National Guard aviation units would be
expected to deploy overseas once every 15 months while support units would do so at
30-month intervals. Driven by those requirements, Air National Guard planners in the National
Guard Bureau began to “reengineer” ANG units to better participate in their expeditionary
roles. The benefits of this concept became apparent in the events of the early 2000s.===Global war on terrorism=======11 September 2001====The defining events for the Air National Guard
(ANG) as well as for the United States occurred with the al Qaeda attacks of 11 September
2001 on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.
The only air defense fighter units stationed within the entire northeastern United States
belonged to the Air National Guard.At 8:38 am, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
in Boston, Massachusetts, reported a possible hijacking and called the Otis Air National
Guard Base control tower on Cape Cod, home to the Massachusetts ANG’s 102d Fighter Wing,
to request military assistance. At that time, Major Dan Nash and Lieutenant Colonel Tim
Duffy had air defense alert duty for the 102d. At 8:40 am Colonel Bob Marr, a Massachusetts
Air National Guardsman serving as NORAD’s Northeast Air Defense Sector commander, learned
from the FAA that American Airlines Flight 11 might have been hijacked. The two pilots
immediately suited up and headed for their F-15s. Marr ordered Nash and Duffy into the
air; their F-15s were airborne within six minutes and as directed, headed for New York
City, 153 miles away. Unknown to the pilots, American Airlines Flight 11 had crashed into
the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City just as Colonel Marr was
delivering his order. Meanwhile, at 8:43 am, the FAA reported another possible hijacking
to the Northeast Air Defense Sector. That was Boston to Los Angeles United Airlines
Flight 175. At 9:02 am, with the F-15s still 71 miles away, that plane crashed into the
World Trade Center’s South Tower.At 9:09 am the pilots of the North Dakota Air National
Guards F-16s of the 119th Fighter Wing were standing by, ready to launch, at their forward
alert operating location at Langley AFB, Virginia, located about 130 miles southeast of Washington,
DC. They were at their battle stations because of a growing general concern about the situation
that morning. Seven minutes later, the FAA reported that United Airlines Flight 93, outbound
from Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco, California, might also have been hijacked.
The FAA notified the Northeast Air Defense Sector eight minutes later that American Flight
77, a flight from Dulles International Airport, Virginia, near Washington, DC, to Los Angeles,
California, also appeared to be the victim of hijackers. At 9:24 am Colonel Marr ordered
three F-16s (two alert aircraft and a spare) scrambled from Langley AFB to check out an
unidentified intermittent aircraft track heading toward Washington DC. In six minutes, the
Langley F-16s were airborne.In accordance with established NORAD procedures, the F-16s
were initially directed to head northeast to avoid some of the most heavily traveled
commercial airline routes rather than to fly directly to the Washington, DC, area. Major
Dean Eckmann and Major Brad Derrig, plus Captain Craig Borgstrom of the 119th Fighter Wing
were directed to fly at maximum subsonic speed, 660 miles per hour. At about 40 miles away,
they saw the billowing smoke of American Airlines Flight 77, which had crashed into the Pentagon
at 9:43 am. As the North Dakota Air Guardsmen neared Washington, DC, Major Eckmann, the
flight lead, set up a patrol over the nation’s capital with the help of air traffic controllers
at the Northeast Air Defense Sector.On 22 May 2002, a Joint Resolution was passed by
the Congress of the United States recognizing the members of the 102d Fighter Wingfor their
actions on 11 September 2001. The resolution in part states: Whereas on the morning of 11 September 2001,
the 102nd Fighter Wing of the Massachusetts Air National Guard became the Nation’s first
airborne responder to the terrorist attacks of that day when it scrambled two F-15 fighter
aircraft just six minutes after being informed of the terrorist hijackings of commercial
airliners.====Operation Noble Eagle====
As a result of the September 11 attacks in 2001, homeland defense became the top national
defense priority the enhanced defense of North America and military support to civilian government
agencies, known as Operation Noble Eagle, began early the next day.During the first
24 hours of the crisis, 34 Air National Guard fighter units flew 179 missions. Eighteen
tanker units generated 78 aircraft in the same time period. Through 28 September, for
example, the Alabama Air National Guard’s 117th Air Refueling Wing kept aircraft aloft
on a continuous basis. Air National Guard units also contributed 111 C-130 aircraft
for movement of personnel and equipment to needed locations, and more than 3,000 ANG
security forces personnel supported the mission, augmenting civilian security police as necessary.
A week after the attacks, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld announced the call up of over
more than 5,000 members of the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve to support the
nation’s increased security requirements. On 22 September, President George W. Bush
mobilized about 5,100 more members of the air reserve components, including approximately
3,000 air refueling and about 130 security specialists.Guardsmen gained national visibility
starting 27 September when President George W. Bush asked the governors for their temporary
help at commercial airports, which had reopened a few days after 9/11 with new security restrictions.
In the airports they would “Temporarily augment the civilian airport security function of
the nation’s commercial airports with a trained, armed, and highly visible military presence.”
For more than seven months, several thousand Guardsmen performed those security duties,
with additional Guardsmen called into service during the Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New
Year holiday period. Although the Army Guard provided the vast majority of the enhanced
airport security force, several hundred Air National Guard personnel also participated.Combat
Air Patrols (CAPs) began to be flown 24/7 over major cities in the United States. ANG
squadrons at 26 bases were put at tremendous strain to support the operations. The Air
National Guard ran continuous round-the-clock combat air patrols over New York City and
Washington, D.C., until spring 2002. In addition, when key events occurred such as the 2002
Winter Olympics in Utah, space shuttle launches in Florida, baseball’s World Series and football’s
Super Bowl, similar air patrols helped provide security. The Air National Guard also flew
random patrols over various urban areas; nuclear power plants; major military installations
such as MacDill AFB, Florida, Peterson AFB, Colorado, Offutt AFB, Nebraska and Scott AFB,
Illinois that were home to various combatant command headquarters; weapons storage facilities
and laboratories. Because estimates of the nation’s security situation became more optimistic,
in spring 2002, the Air Force eliminated the continuous patrols and substituted random
ones by the summer.====Operation Enduring Freedom====On 20 September 2001, President Bush told
a televised joint session of Congress and the American people that Osama bin Laden and
his al Qaeda network were responsible for the recent terrorist attacks on the United
States. The refusal of the Taliban to comply resulted in the United States taking military
action to achieve the president’s demands, the action given the name Operation Enduring
Freedom.The ANG was involved even before the fighting in Afghanistan began. With the war
imminent, the Air Force quickly established an airlift operations plan that included active
duty, Guard, and Reserve components. It became one of the most extensive operations in Air
Force history. Furthermore, the Air Force met the logistical needs of that operation
despite the severe shortage of strategic airlift and troublesome maintenance needs of the older
planes.Shortly after the terrorist attacks on 9/11 and weeks before the first U.S. bomb
was dropped over Afghanistan, the Air Force established air bridges to help funnel material
and personnel overseas to support multiple operations in conjunction with Enduring Freedom.
Air National Guard tanker units received orders by 20 September 2001, to be in their deployed
locations before the start of their air bridge operations. Some ANG tanker units also flew
humanitarian support missions. By using European bases, the Air Force could transfer cargo
from the larger aircraft to smaller planes, refuel aircraft on the ground, exchange flight
crews, give crews rest opportunities, and repair broken aircraft.The Air National Guard
contributed two C-141 Starlifter units, the 155th Airlift Squadron / 164th Airlift Wing,
Tennessee Air National Guard; and the 183d Airlift Squadron / 172d Airlift Wing, Mississippi
Air National Guard, to the strategic airlift mission. The Air National Guard’s sole C-5
Galaxy unit, the 137th Airlift Squadron / 105th Airlift Wing, New York Air National Guard
at Stewart Air National Guard Base in Newburgh, New York, also contributed to the operation.
Through the ANG’s airlift participation in Europe, the Regular Air Force and Air Force
Reserve (Associate) C-17 Globemaster IIIs could support Enduring Freedom directly.When
the war began, only Air National Guard units assigned to Air Force Special Operations Command
(AFSOC) deployed directly to Afghanistan to support combat operations. Typically, ANG
special operations units in 13-man teams first went to active duty bases in the United States,
and later to overseas locations.The 169th Fighter Wing, South Carolina Air National
Guard, was the first ANG fighter unit to deploy to Southwest Asia in direct support of the
air war over Afghanistan. It sent over 200 personnel and six F-16CJs in January 2002
to Al Udeid Air Base in Doha, Qatar, to assist air combat operations over Afghanistan. In
particular, they provided Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAMs) against Taliban and al Qaeda
positions, the only Air Force fighter unit in the theater to do so. F-16s sometimes were
also configured for Cluster Bomb Units (CBUw). In addition, F-16 pilots sometimes fired their
20mm gun against ground targets. Missions could last up to 10 hours with multiple air
refuelings. After so many hours strapped in their seats, pilots generally received one
to three days of crew rest. The unit returned to South Carolina on 3 April 2002.The Pennsylvania
Air National Guard’s 103d Fighter Squadron of the 111th Fighter Wing, became the first
A-10 ANG unit to deploy directly to Afghanistan. From December 2002 to January 2003, the 111th
Fighter Wing deployed personnel and sent its aircraft to Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan to
carry out ground support missions for both United States as well as Afghan Northern Alliance
ground forces. In March 2003, the 104th Fighter Squadron of Maryland’s 175th Wing deployed
to Afghanistan. While there, it flew all the A-10 combat missions for Operation Enduring
Freedom.=====Takur Ghar=====For Operation Anaconda, its commander, Army
Major General Franklin L. Hagenbeck, directed coalition forces, U.S. soldiers and Afghan
forces, to destroy remaining al Qaeda and Taliban forces in an area located roughly
65 nautical miles south of the Afghan capital, Kabul. One reconnaissance team in two helicopters
landed on Takur Ghar, Ghar, a snowcapped, 10,200-foot mountain where temperatures at
the top reached 40 °F (4 °C) during the day and dropped to a negative five at night.One
helicopter carried a Navy SEAL team and an Air Force combat controller, Technical Sergeant
John Chapman. As the SEAL team disem-barked, automatic weapons fire laced the helicopter’s
side while a rocket propelled grenade ripped into it. The crew chief yelled, “We’re taking
fire! Go! Go! Go!” and the SEAL team rushed back inside. As the pilots added power to
evade the heavy ground fire, the damaged helicopter bucked violently, causing Navy SEAL Petty
Officer 1st Class Neil Roberts, who was standing on the ramp, to fall about 12 feet to the
ground below. The helicopter escaped the ambush and crash-landed about seven kilometers north
of where Petty Officer Roberts fell. The second helicopter rescued the other SEALs and Sergeant
Chapman but after returning to their base, they decided to try and rescue Petty Officer
Roberts.Regardless of the danger they knew the al Qaeda would treat Roberts badly and
time was running out for him. Despite intense ground fire, the six men successfully returned
to Takur Ghar. Nevertheless, the battle continued and Sergeant Chapman was killed along with
several enemy fighters. Surrounded by gunfire, the men on the ground called upon a Quick
Reaction Force (QRF), designed for such emergencies. Those forces consisted of 23 men and two helicopters.
The team included Tech Sergeant Miller. “We were notified that we would be launching in
45 minutes,” he recalled, “and were going into [an al Qaeda and Taliban] infested area.”
Also on the team were Army Rangers. During Operation Enduring Freedom, Rangers and special
operations formed the focal point of the U.S. ground campaign. Because of communications
failures, the Quick Reaction Force landed in the same spot as the previous helicopters
and, like them, was greeted with gunfire. Miller’s helicopter managed to land, and the
QRF called in close air support. For the next five and a half hours, they battled with the
enemy. Three Rangers died and others were wounded.According to Sergeant Miller, “We
continued to treat the patients, continued moving ammunition and grenades to where they
were needed. I grabbed a radio … and set up satellite communication and then returned
to the rear.” Tech Sergeant Miller and Senior Airman Jason Cunningham, like Miller, a pararescueman,
worked hard to keep the patients from succumbing to hypothermia. They put them in the helicopter
and removed its insulation and wrapped it around the wounded Rangers. In addition, they
used the majority of the fluids available in the medical kits and anything else, including
the heaters packed in their food rations. With the help of the additional Rangers and
more air strikes, they took the hill, killing many al Qaeda combatants. They also recovered
the bodies of Petty Officer Roberts and Sergeant Chapman.Approximately 10 minutes after the
Rangers took control of the hill, they began to receive more frequent enemy mortar and
automatic weapons fire. Although combat air support prevailed, the enemy wounded an Army
medic and fatally wounded Airman Cunningham. At that point the Quick Reaction Force had
11 wounded and seven dead. After 17 hours on the mountaintop, a nighttime rescue took
place and the ordeal was over. Operation Anaconda continued for another 19 days.By March 2002,
ANG C-130 units had flown 55 percent of the missions for the Afghanistan war. The 193d
Special Operations Wing of the Pennsylvania Air National Guard, using the EC-130E Commando
Solo aircraft, performed an unusual mission in Afghanistan: psychological operations (PSYOPS).
Since 1968, the 193d had been handling airborne psychological operations missions. The EC-130E
acquired the mission name Commando Solo during the 1990s, when the aircraft was modified
to handle color television operations. One of the first ANG flying units deployed to
the area, the 193d began transmitting by the end of October 2001. For almost six months
the unit relayed broadcasts of Voice of America in the Dari and Pashtu languages and Radio
Free Europe/Radio Liberty in Uzbek, Tajik, and Persian. According to a White House spokesman,
the Commando Solo missions gave the Afghan people “full knowledge about what is happening
in Afghanistan from a source other than a repressive Taliban regime.” The 193d remained
in the region until ground psychological warfare operations stations were safely established.Once
the Iraq conflict began in March 2003, the military began to reduce its resources in
Afghanistan. Yet the reliance on using the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units,
aircraft and personnel there continues to the present supporting the combat operations
under United States Air Forces Central (USAFCENT). Air National Guardsmen and aircraft deploy
to Afghanistan routinely as part of the Air Expeditionary Units at bases there.====Operation Iraqi Freedom====
On 18 March 2003, the United States and coalition forces launched the invasion of Iraq in order
to remove Saddam Hussein’s regime from power, the invasion being designated Operation Iraqi
Freedom. In addition to flying units, such as fighter, air refueling, airlift, special
operations and rescue, the ANG also provided a robust force of over 3,530 additional personnel
for the expeditionary combat support functions and many Air National Guard senior officers
held command positions during the war.=====Siege of the Haditha Dam=====As operations began, Army Rangers embarked
on a mission to protect the Haditha Dam from being destroyed by Iraqi forces. The Rangers
expected the operation to last approximately 24 hours. Instead it took them more than 12
days. The dam is a critical source of water and electrical in western Iraq. If the Iraqis
succeeded in blowing up the dam, the releasing waters would flood the down-river areas, causing
a humanitarian and environmental disaster.The Rangers expected the dam to be well defended.
In preparation for the assault on the dam, fighters assigned to the 410th Air Expeditionary
Wing (410 AEW) conducted preparatory air strikes against Iraqi forces in the dam’s vicinity.
Air support for Special Forces in the battle came from various coalition aircraft including
U.S. Army Special Operations Aviation units. However, that battle became one of the defining
operations for the AEW, and in particular, Air National Guard pilots. The 410th was responsible
for providing combat search and rescue capability for western and central Iraq. During the month-long
air campaign over the western Iraqi desert, the A-10 and F-16 Air National Guard pilots
assigned to the AEW were involved in countless missions supporting Special Forces teams in
need of close air support. The highly experienced Air National Guard pilots assigned to the
AEW, especially the A-10 pilots, helped insure the successful employment of close air support
for friendly forces fighting to retain the Haditha Dam.AH-6 helicopters of the U.S. Army’s
160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment and F-16s from the 410 AEW provided air cover
as the Rangers took their convoy to Haditha. During the night of 1 April 2003, with support
from the 410th, the Rangers seized the dam, a power station, and a transformer yard while
facing light to moderate enemy resistance. Several Iraqis were killed and wounded; others,
including 25 civilian workers, were taken prisoner. As daylight broke over the dam,
the Rangers began taking increasing enemy fire from the south as well as coordinated
attacks at both ends of the dam. Although the Rangers repelled the initial assault,
Iraqi counterattacks continued with heavy mortar and artillery shells that rained down
on the Rangers. Fortunately, the Rangers had ample air support from the 410th which attacked
several mortar positions. Even without the protection of darkness, the Air National Guard
A-10s attacked numerous enemy positions. At nightfall the Iraqis resumed their attacks
against the Rangers, but once again close air supported the U.S. forces. A single bomb
obliterated the attackers and shattered every window in the dam complex. Nevertheless, the
siege continued for ten more days.The Rangers on the dam were greatly outnumbered. Nevertheless,
the combined efforts of a Forward Air Controller-qualified pilot (FAC), a Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR)
pilot, and observation posts manned by additional Rangers and Air Force enlisted terminal attack
controllers (who cleared airborne weapons for release) ensured the Rangers on the dam
would not be overrun. That operation reflected the typical attitude held by Air National
Guard aviators, especially A-10 pilots, who believed that when ground troops needed help,
the pilots would remain as long as possible to, “… lay it on the line more and expose
themselves more over the target area.” Even when the Rangers were not taking enemy fire,
the A-10s provided cover so the Rangers could catch a few hours of sleep. The 410th fighters
also supplied air cover during medical evacuation missions for killed and wounded Rangers.During
the twelfth day of the siege, the outnumbered Rangers continued to face repeated attacks
by the enemy force. The Air National Guard A-10 and F-16 pilots realized early in the
battle that the close air support they provided was the vital element that kept the Iraqi
forces at bay, a matter of life and death for the Rangers. In the end the coalition
forces prevailed. Military experts believed that without the air support, especially the
A-10s, the Rangers would not have won the battle. Not only did the coalition forces
secure the Haditha Dam complex, but they seriously reduced the fighting effectiveness of the
Iraqi Armored Task Force in the Haditha area.=====Intelligence operations=====Air National Guard intelligence personnel
deployed overseas and supported the war effort in signals intelligence by flying Senior Scout
missions and augmented RC-135V/W Rivet Joint ELINT crews to “monitor the electronic activity
of adversaries.” Although their pilots sat at controls in the United States, Air National
Guardsmen also “flew” RQ-4 Global Hawk and MQ-1 Predator unmanned aerial vehicle intelligence
missions in Southwest Asia.Operation Iraqi Freedom’s intelligence collection efforts
were enhanced by the initial combat employment of the Air Force’s first and only “blended”
wing: the newly formed 116th Air Control Wing, composed of both ANG and active duty Air Force
personnel based in Robins AFB, Georgia. The wing deployed nine of its 11 assigned E-8
Joint STARS aircraft to the Iraqi Freedom theater as well as over 600 unit personnel
including one-tenth of the aircrews. Air National Guardsmen composed about one-fourth of the
Wing’s deployed personnel. Although the wing has since reverted to an all-ANG organization,
it continues to be integral to operation of the E-8 Joint STARS weapon system.
The 193d Special Operations Wing of the Pennsylvania Air National Guard deployed its EC-130 Commando
Solo aircraft for a variety of PSYOPS support to coalition agencies in Iraq. Flying from
March to June 2003, its missions apparently fulfilled their goals. According to an Iraqi
prisoner of war and former mid-level intelligence officer, the population in southern Iraq considered
the coalition radio broadcasts more truthful than state-owned media. The leaflets also
had a significant impact on the morale of Iraqi military and prompted considerations
to surrender. The Iraqis concluded that U.S. planes could as easily target them with bombs
as leaflets if their intent was lethal.=====Support operations=====
As in Afghanistan, the Air National Guard contributed significant airlift capability
to Operation Iraqi Freedom. Thirteen of ANG’s 25 airlift units participated, including 72
of 124 Air Force C-130s. Among their missions, Air National Guard C-130 crews airlifted elements
of the 82d Airborne Division and the 3d Marine Expeditionary Force. Those crews also flew
one of the first day/night airlift missions into an Iraq air base and delivered the first
humanitarian supplies into Baghdad International Airport. During Operation Iraqi Freedom’s
first six months, Air National Guard C-130 crews airlifted 22,000 tons of cargo, 47,000
passengers, and flew 8,600 sorties in 21,000 hours.As essential to the war effort as were
C-130s, A-10s, and piloted reconnaissance and surveillance aircraft, they could not
have completed their missions efficiently without aerial refueling. During the war in
Iraq, the Air Force deployed 200 tanker aircraft based at 15 locations. Air National Guard
KC-135 tankers provided one-third of the Air Force refueling aircraft deployed for Operation
Iraqi Freedom, and an additional 35 ANG tanker aircraft conducted air bridge operations.The
Air National Guard also deployed air traffic control personnel, maintainers, and airspace
managers. Over 27 percent of the total Air Force civil engineering force in Iraq came
from the ANG; other Air Guard engineers supported Iraqi Freedom while operating in several other
countries.The Iraqi conflict continued through 2011 and the Air National Guard continued
its involvement. By 2004 nearly 40 percent of the total Air Force aircraft deployed for
overseas operations were assigned to the Air National Guard. The ANG supported Air Expeditionary
Force deployments to Iraq throughout the 2000s, until the United States removed its forces
from the country.===State and local government support=======
Natural disasters====Traditionally, governors called out National
Guard units when faced with natural but localized disasters such as blizzards, earthquakes,
floods, and forest fires. The president could also federalize them in major disasters that
threatened to overwhelm the resources of individual states or communities. According to the National
Guard Bureau, “The indigenous skills and capabilities National Guardsmen to respond to natural disasters
are the same skills and capabilities that enable us to successfully respond to potential
terrorist threats.”The Air National Guard’s main tool for fighting forest fires is the
Modular Airborne Fire Fighting System (MAFFS), which has undergone several updates since
its first use in September 1971 by the California Air National Guard’s then-146th Tactical Airlift
Wing and the North Carolina Air National Guard’s then 145th Tactical Airlift Group. Housed
in C-130s, MAFFS could disperse up to 27,000 pounds … almost 3,000 gallons … of commercial
fire retardants or an equivalent amount of water. Newer aircraft like the C-130J carry
the MAFFS II, which carry even more fire retardant, can disperse it more rapidly over a wider
area, and is easier to recharge after a mission than its predecessor.Blizzards also created
the need for National Guard support. Often both Army National Guard and Air National
Guard units assisted with health and welfare matters, conducted debris removal and power
generation, and provided supply and transportation support in connection with snowstorms. For
example, a Christmas-time 2006 blizzard at the airport hub of Denver International Airport
closed that facility down for two days. Army and Air National Guardsmen took food and water
to thousands of travelers trapped there. In the same storm, western Kansas received between
15 and 36 inches of snow with drifts as high as 13 feet. The Air National Guard not only
assisted people, but also dropped bales of hay to feed stranded cattle.====Hurricane Katrina====On 29 August 2005, the largest natural disaster
the Air National Guard faced in its then 58-year history began when Hurricane Katrina hit the
United States Gulf Coast. The most severe damage came from a 30-plus-foot storm surge
along the Mississippi coast and the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana and
breaks in the levies along a canal in New Orleans. Several weeks later Hurricane Rita
devastated portions of western Louisiana and eastern Texas, and then the less severe Hurricane
Wilma damaged Florida.By the time Katrina made landfall, the Air National Guard had
mobilized 840 personnel in Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. Although the Air National
Guard had a domestic mission to support local authorities in rescue and relief operations
following a natural disaster, its utilization for such missions had been limited primarily
to a select group of career fields such as civil engineers, medical personnel, and services.
In response to Hurricane Katrina, ANG units in all 54 states and territories responded
to the recovery efforts in the Gulf States, with the Mississippi Air National Guard’s
Jackson Air National Guard Base serving as a hub and operating location for numerous
active duty, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve, Naval Reserve and Army National Guard
aircraft. The ANG flew 73 percent of the airlift for the relief operations including its brand
new C-130J and C-17 Globemaster III aircraft. In addition, ANG Combat Search and Rescue
pararescuemen and Combat Controllers saved over 1,300 victims.ANG personnel arrived on
the Gulf Coast on 29 August, a few hours after the storm’s arrival. Personnel from the Florida
Air National Guard’s 202nd RED HORSE Squadron of the 125th Fighter Wing were some of the
first to enter the area. Seventy-three engineers from this unit worked in hard-hit Hancock
County, Mississippi. Initially establishing a basecamp for other emergency personnel,
the unit began repairs in Hancock County communities working nearly around-the-clock on multiple
construction projects to restore power, clean and repair schools, and refurbish electrical
supplies. As a Florida unit, the 202nd had worked many other hurricanes. However, Katrina’s
devastation surpassed anything in their previous experience.To support rescue and relief operations
in New Orleans, the Air National Guard used Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans,
in Belle Chasse, Louisiana, on the Mississippi River’s West Bank. Within five hours of its
orders, the 136th Airlift Wing of the Texas Air National Guard deployed 41 Air National
Guardsmen to Belle Chasse. Less than 24 hours later, a C-130H landed at the air station
with members of the Louisiana Air National Guard’s 159th Fighter Wing. Soon more aircraft
arrived, delivering troops and supplies for New Orleans; offloaded pallets were stacked
10 deep on the aircraft parking ramp. Instead of heading into the flooded city, the 136th
team remained at Belle Chasse and, within 36 hours of arriving, it established a fully
functioning Air Terminal Operations Center and was keeping pace with the demanding mission
schedule. That Aerial Port team, augmented by U.S. Navy cargo handlers and members of
the 133d Aerial Port Squadron, 133d Airlift Wing of the Minnesota Air National Guard,
handled over 124 missions with 1.5 million pounds of cargo and 974 passengers in one
day. As one of its most crucial tasks, the Texas squadron downloaded the German pump
system used to drain the city of New Orleans because its own pumps were inundated. It also
uploaded two KC-135s with 140 kennels filled with rescued dogs bound for adoption in Arizona.===Operation Deep Freeze===The Air National Guard also participates in
noncombat support missions that sometimes take it beyond the U.S. boundaries. For example,
in Operation Winter Freeze, from November 2004 through January 2005, nearly 250 Army
and Air National Guardsmen provided assistance to U.S. Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) along
295 miles of the United States-Canada border. That operation included military personnel
from U.S. Northern Command’s Joint Task Force North who helped the Border Patrol to, “… keep
potential terrorists out of the country and to break up smuggling rings that try to get
them in.” [In order] to detect, deter, and monitor suspicious actions … Air Guard crews
flew twin-engine, C-26 airplanes out of Syracuse, New York”The New York Air National Guard’s
109th Airlift Wing operates ski-equipped LC-130 Hercules transports that fly into arctic regions.
In 2006, two LC-130s closed the 2006 Operation Deep Freeze located at McMurdo Station near
the South Pole. The mission ended because the temperature dropped to almost minus −50
°F (−46 °C) in three days. Since 1988, the squadron had provided the air supply bridge
to McMurdo, landing with wheels on an ice runway near the station. However, as it got
colder, the ski-equipped LC-130s landed on a snow-covered skiway on the Ross Ice Shelf
a few miles from the station.In the spring and summer, the 109th heads toward the North
Pole where it supports the National Science Foundation and several other nations in Greenland
and above the Arctic Circle.==Air National Guard units (headquarters,
wing and group level)=====National===
Air National Guard Readiness Center, Joint Base Andrews, Maryland
Air National Guard Air Force Reserve Command Test Center, Tucson ANGB, Arizona
Air National Guard Weather Readiness Training Center, Camp Blanding, Florida
I.G. Brown Air National Guard Training and Education Center, McGhee Tyson ANGB, Knoxville,
Federal District and Territories=====
List of Air National Guard Leaders==This is a list of the senior leaders or Generals
of the Air National Guard. The title has changed over time: The Assistant Chief, National Guard
Bureau for Air,; Chief, Air Force Division, National Guard Bureau; Director Air National
Guard.==See also==Air National Guard Readiness Center
I.G. Brown Air National Guard Training and Education Center
Flying Squadrons of the Air National GuardComparable organizations Army National Guard (U.S. Army)
United States Army Reserve United States Marine Corps Reserve
United States Navy Reserve United States Coast Guard Reserve
Air Force Reserve Command (U.S. Air Force

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