California: Designing Freedom


California is a remarkably alluring word. It sums up all sorts of ideas about the world. It’s about the dream of freedom, about possibilities. And in the last 50 years or so, that idea of about what freedom is has been transformed. The Sixties were certainly about pleasure about people following hedonistic pursuits which is certainly what California’s beach cultures were like It was about going to San Francisco but it was also about political self-expression. It was the years when the Vietnam war created a unified opposition it was when music went through a revolutionary change overturning old ideas about what popular music might be. And that was about freedom of self-expression it was when gay liberation was first discussed. Stuart Brand, who invented the Whole Earth catalogue back in the Sixties ran a campaign unimaginably to persuade NASA to release photographs taken of the earth from space which had never been seen before It was finally released and suddenly changed the way people saw the world. While Californian start-ups opening up in garages trying to make personal computers were in full swing there was also a mood among a wider public to find out how to build their own dome how to hack the phone systems, so they can get free phone calls how to distill their own LSD it was the kind of quest for open information which is what started Wikipedia. America didn’t quite invent the freeway Adolf Hitler had the Autobahn system but Los Angeles was probably the first city to be completely re-shaped and re-engineered by building massive freeways throughout across and around the city and the initial response from the outside world was utter horror. And then a rather interesting British critic, Reyner Banham went off and in the way of urban critics he suddenly reversed the captions What was seen by conventional wisdom as terrible suddenly he presented as a positive. [REYNER BANHAM]You see, I think freeway driving is interesting in itself.From up here you see the most weird, extraordinary placesand things which you can hardly see from down below.Memorably, Banham actually said he learnt to drive so he could “read Los Angeles in the original”. Those freeways shaped the city, they shaped behaviors they shaped how far people could commute. And now one sees them as being the past. The freeway is the analogue. Now communication is done digitally through the always on smartphone For generations, California has seen itself as a place in which things can happen. Ground zero in Silicon Valley is Stanford University which for more than 100 years has been turning out extremely gifted physicists and scientists. That’s really where this research culture first came from. Northern California around San Francisco and Silicon Valley it’s the place in which, within the space of about 50 miles you will find the headquarters of three of the most powerful companies on the planet. Apple, Facebook, Google. Apple weren’t the first people to make an MP3 music player but they were the ones that came up with the idea of a click wheel which produced the iPod which suddenly made it possible to find that record track you were looking for. They weren’t the first people to make a mobile telephone but just 10 years ago Steve Jobs launched a product which was like nothing anyone had seen before. [STEVE JOBS]A wide-screen iPod with touch controlsa revolutionary mobile phone, and a breakthrough internet communications device.These are not three separate devices.This is one device.And we are calling it: iPhone. Initially the response was ‘that’s a bit strange’ mobile phones are meant to be getting smaller and there’s a rather curious absence of buttons. And people shrugged. And then of course it made the whole world utterly different. It made Uber possible it made Air B&B possible it’s transformed the way that we navigate cities it’s transformed the way that we meet people we might fall in love with Everything is different. And it’s happened so fast. In ten years, Apple has sold 1.2 billion smartphones that kind of speed, that kind of change is unique. Jonathan Ive, who led the team at Apple who gave the physical shape to the technology the smartphone depends on probably belongs to that last generation of designers were trained in the analogue era using physical models, using drawing And he took from that a fascination for shape and touch an understanding of the attractions that people have to something that feels good in the hand. Something that is smooth, something that feels elegant. To that he added a layer of interfaces that actually make the phone work. So we’ve lost the switch and the knob and the lever with which we used to feel in control of objects but what Apple did was to recreate that in a digital form so that you have a user interface which is clear and easy to navigate. So much digital communication is based on knowing that human beings are basically addictive So the programmes we have on our smartphones are programmed to make us want more and more we want to see how many ‘likes’ we’ve got, we want to see who’s texted us, we want to share our Instagram images with the world. And the iPhone as an object provides a wonderful frame for that. Design is now about how we interact with each other it’s about what you see on the screen it’s about designing a process it’s about designing how you apply for a passport how you buy a plane ticket how you get on the underground, how you pay for your tickets. All those things are designs in some way. It’s not always about making a beautiful shape. Sometimes it’s about how things feel. But it’s always about how we understand the world around us. The iPhone came from California and it changed the world because a generation of extraordinary people looked for freedom in California and found new ways of delivering it in the digital world. Every year the Design Museum does have a Designs of the Year exhibition and in each category there’s a winner. 10 years ago, the iPhone was nominated but it did not win. And now we know how wrong we were.

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