Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years | Wikipedia audio article


During the World Wars and Interwar Years Canada
experienced economic gain, more freedom for women and new technological advancements.==World War I==On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand
of Austria-Hungary was assassinated, setting off a chain of events leading to World War
I. At the time, Canadians were more concerned with events within their own country than
European affairs, specifically in the Balkans where crises and wars had been brutal perennials
for generations. The summer of 1914 brought a second year of drought turning wheat fields
into parched deserts while the two new transcontinental railways the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian
Northern fell further into debt, sending the thousands of men who had helped build them
into unemployment. Canada was facing its worst depression since the 1890s. Canadians hoped
the Great Powers of Europe could keep the peace as they had done many times before in
earlier disputes of the century. Besides, so far Britain had no reason to join in the
squabble forming on the main continent, leaving no obligation for Canada to join if war did
break out between Russia, France, Germany and Austria-Hungary. News of war did not make
a stir in Canada until Germany invaded Belgium as part of the Schlieffen Plan, and the British
delivered an ultimatum to Kaiser Wilhelm: withdraw from Belgium by August 4 or Britain
would be at a state of war with Germany. On July 29, 1914, Britain warned its colonies
to take precautions in case of war. Most recent wars had begun with surprise attacks such
as the Russo-Japanese War. Soldiers and Canada’s few sailors manned Halifax fortifications
and brought guns to command the St. Lawrence river. In Victoria, British Columbia Premier
Richard McBride signed a cheque for $1,150,000 and bought two submarines from a Seattle shipyard,
so at least British Columbia’s coast was not completely defenceless. On August 2 armed
militia mounted guard on bridges, canals, tunnels and railway stations in preparation.
In Ottawa, the Minister of Militia, Colonel Sam Hughes, had dreamed for years of leading
Canadians to war and had for a long time preached and prepared for war with Germany and now
had only to wait on London to make the first move, much to his irritation, but was persuaded
by the octogenarian quartermaster general Major-General Donald Alexander Macdonald to
be patient. On August 4 8:55 P.M., Canada got the news and Hughes was ecstatic: Britain
was at war with Germany. Canada was then automatically at war, as she
did not yet have control over her foreign policy — not that there were many dissenters.
The war was initially popular even among French Canadians, including Henri Bourassa, who historically
looked afoul at the British Empire. Liberal leader Wilfrid Laurier created a ‘party truce’
for as long as Canada was in danger and had those dissenters in the liberal caucus hold
their tongues. When asked what Canada ‘must do’ by the press, Laurier responded “When
the call comes, our answer goes at once, and it goes in the classical language of the British
answer to the call of duty, ‘Ready, aye, ready!'” Prime Minister Robert Borden called a meeting
of Parliament on August 18, and without division or significant debate, MPs approved an overseas
contingent of 25,000 men with Canada bearing the full cost: a war appropriation of $50
million and a Canadian Patriotic Fund to support the families of men who would fight in Europe.
The Cabinet spent many hours trying to devise adequate emergency legislation, resulting
in the War Measures Act, decreeing the Cabinet would have the authority to do whatever it
deemed necessary for the security, defence, peace, order and welfare of Canada.In no way
was Canada prepared for this scale of war. Its economy could not support it for more
than a few months before being hit hard by its cost, as was with other participants.
No one expected it to last longer than a few months though, many claiming it would be over
by Christmas. Mass recruiting for the war effort began on August 6 with hundreds of
telegrams notifying Militia colonel to begin recruiting men between the ages of 18 and
45. Hordes of British immigrants and the unemployed answered the call. Ontario, hard hit by the
depression, accounted for third of the recruits, while two thirds of the recruits were British
born. Few recruits came from the Maritimes and just over 1,000 were French. The cities
of Toronto, Winnipeg and Montreal sent enough men each for two battalions. By September
4 there were 32,000 men and 8,000 horses in camp, far more than had been expected. There
was an immediate demand for equipment, uniforms and weapons. The Ross Rifle Company worked
overtime as did the textile mills and clothing factories. With a force of 32,000 equipped
and ready, it soon became apparent that Embarkation from the docks would be a nightmare. Extra
ships had to be chartered to carry the additional men. Battalions were marched on to ships only
to be marched back off when they didn’t fit. Units ignored orders and schedules and crowded
the docks not wishing to wait. When it was all done, the last of 30 ships had cleared
the harbour, leaving 863 horses, 4,512 tons of baggage, vehicles and ammunition behind,
for which another ship had to be called in to pick up.
The first Canadian casualties of the war occurred before these troops arrived in Europe. Sir
Christopher Cradock’s squadron was sunk at the Battle of Coronel off the coast of Chile,
claiming four midshipmen who became Canada’s first war dead. By the time that the First
Contingent reached England on October 14 it became apparent the war would not be over
by Christmas. Germany’s initial rapid successes in Belgium and France had come to halt and
both sides were starting to dig into their positions.
Canadians fought at Ypres, the Somme, Passchendaele, and other important battles, originally under
British command, but eventually under a unified Canadian command. From a Canadian point of
view the most important battle of the war was the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917, during
which Canadian troops captured a fortified German hill that had eluded both the British
and French. Vimy, as well as the success of the Canadian flying ace Billy Bishop, helped
give Canada a new sense of identity. With mounting costs at home, Sir Thomas White
introduced the first income tax in Canada as a “temporary” measure. The lowest bracket
was 4% and highest was 25%. The 620,000 men in service were most remembered
for combat in the trenches of the Western Front; there were 67,000 war dead and 173,000
wounded. This total does not include the 2,000 deaths and 9,000 injuries in December 1917
when a munitions ship exploded in Halifax.===The conscription crisis of 1917===After three years of a war that was supposed
to have been over in three months, Canada was suffering from a shortage of volunteers.
Prime Minister Robert Borden had originally promised not to introduce conscription, but
now believed it was necessary to win the war. The Military Service Act was passed in July,
but there was fierce opposition, mostly from French Canadians (led not only by Bourassa,
but also by Wilfrid Laurier), as well as Quakers, Mennonites, and other pacifists. Borden’s
government almost collapsed, but he was able to form a Union government with the Liberal
opposition (although Laurier did not join the new government). In the 1917 election,
the Union government was re-elected, but with no support from Quebec. Over the next year,
the war finally ended, with very few Canadian conscripts actually participating.===Halifax Explosion===Halifax, Nova Scotia, was the main staging
point for convoys making trans-Atlantic crossings. On December 6, 1917, a Belgian relief ship
collided with the SS Mont-Blanc, a French munitions ship in Halifax harbour. The crash
set the Mont-Blanc on fire; its holds were full of benzol, picric acid, and TNT. Twenty
minutes later it exploded with a force stronger than any man-made explosion before it, destroying
most of Halifax and the surrounding towns. Out of a population of 50,000, 1600 people
were killed and over 9,000 injured; hundreds were blinded by flying glass. The city was
evacuated and dropped out of the war effort, focusing primarily on economic survival.==Post-war society==
During the war, the woman’s suffrage movement gained support. The provinces began extending
voting rights to women in 1916, and women were finally allowed to vote in federal elections
in 1918. Canada was also faced with the return of thousands of soldiers, with few jobs waiting
for them at home. They also brought back with them the Spanish flu, which killed over 50,000
people by 1919, almost the same number that had been killed in the war.===Labour conflicts===The move from a wartime to a peacetime economy,
combined with the unwillingness of returned soldiers to accept pre-war working conditions,
led to another crisis. In 1919, the One Big Union was formed by trade union syndicalists
with the intent of improving conditions for all workers, not just in a single workplace,
industry, or sector. The OBU had some influence on the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919, which
business and political leaders saw as an outbreak of Bolshevism, especially since the Soviet
Union had recently been formed. The army was sent in to break the strike and the entire
Winnipeg police force was fired and replaced with a much larger and better paid force of
armed special constables. Although the Winnipeg strike is the best known, it was part of a
larger strike wave that swept the country. Special constables, vigilante “citizens” organizations,
and replacement workers were mobilized in strikebreaking throughout the country in this
period.===Politics===
Meanwhile, in western Canada, and to some extent in the Maritimes, populist reformers
were pushing for increased provincial rights and a focus on agriculture, rather than the
industrial focus of Central Canada. They formed the Progressive Party of Canada, which supported
Mackenzie King when the Liberals had a minority government in 1925-26. King eventually lost
support, however, because of the trade tariffs issue, as well as a liquor smuggling scandal.
When his request that parliament be dissolved was rejected by the Governor General of Canada
(see King-Byng Affair), he was forced to resign in 1926, but was re-appointed after his party
won the election later that year, after which, at an Imperial Conference, King advocated
the redefining of the role of the Governor General and the gain of increased independence
for Canada in the Balfour Declaration of 1926.===Radio===The history of broadcasting in Canada begins
in the early 1920s, as Canadians were swept up in the radio craze and built crystal sets
to listen to American stations. Main themes in the history include the development of
the engineering technology; the construction of stations across the country and the building
of networks; the widespread purchase and use of radio and television sets by the general
public; debates regarding state versus private ownership of stations; financing of the broadcasts
media through the government, license fees, and advertising; the changing content of the
programming; the impact of the programming on Canadian identity; the media’s influence
on shaping audience responses to music, sports and politics; the role of the Québec government;
Francophone versus Anglophone cultural tastes; the role of other ethnic groups and First
Nations; and fears of American cultural imperialism via the airwaves. In the late 20th century,
Radio was largely overwhelmed by television, but still maintained a niche. In the 21st
century, the central question is the impact of the Internet and smartphones on traditional
broadcasting media.Most Canadian-owned stations had weak signals compared with American stations.
In the 1930s there were 60 Canadian stations but 40% of Canadians could only tune in American
stations. Many stations simply rebroadcast American radio shows. Little funding was available
for Canadian content. The most notable exceptions were religious radio shows, such as “Back
to the Bible Hour,” produced by Alberta’s premier, William Aberhart, and the increasingly
popularity of broadcast hockey games.Pressure from Graham Spry and the Canadian Radio League
encouraged Mackenzie King to request a Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting. Its report
called for a national radio network to encourage national sentiment. In 1932, the government
of R.B. Bennett established the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, transformed into
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in 1936. CBC set up a French language network in Quebec
and adjacent Francophone areas. Although the French language service had little competition
from American stations, it proved quite conservative in technology and programming. It was closely
aligned with powerful newspaper and Church interests and became a propaganda forum for
the traditional elites of Quebec. It did not promote separatism or a sense of Québec nationalism.==The Great Depression==Canada was hard hit by the worldwide Great
Depression that began in 1929. Between 1929 and 1933, the gross national product dropped
40% (compared to 37% in the US). Unemployment reached 27% at the depth of the Depression
in 1933. Many businesses closed, as corporate profits of $396 million in 1929 turned into
losses of $98 million in 1933. Canadian exports shrank by 50% from 1929 to 1933. Construction
all but stopped (down 82%, 1929–33), and wholesale prices dropped 30%. Wheat prices
plunged from 78c per bushel (1928 crop) to 29c in 1932.Worst hit were areas dependent
on primary industries such as farming, mining and logging, as prices fell and there were
few alternative jobs. Most families had moderate losses and little hardship, though they too
became pessimistic and their debts become heavier as prices fell. Some families saw
most or all of their assets disappear, and suffered severely.
While the decline started in the United States, it quickly spread to Canada. The first industry
affected was wheat farming, which saw a collapse in prices. This impoverished the economies
of the Prairie provinces, but as wheat was then Canada’s largest export it also hurt
the rest of the country. With the collapse of the construction industry, lumbering was
even worse hit, as there were few alternative jobs in the lumbering region. This was soon
followed by a deep recession in manufacturing, first caused by a drop-off in demand in the
United States, and then by Canadians also not buying more than bare essentials. The
auto industry that prospered so greatly in the 1920s was badly hit. Construction came
to a halt. People who lost jobs because of layoffs and closures had a very hard time
finding a new ones—especially older men and teenagers. Unemployment rose to 25 per
cent.===Government reaction===
In 1930 in the first stage of the long depression, Prime Minister Mackenzie King believed that
the crisis was a temporary swing of the business cycle and that the economy would soon recover
without government intervention. He refused to provide unemployment relief or federal
aid to the provinces, saying that if Conservative provincial governments demanded federal dollars
he would not give them “a five cent piece.” His blunt wisecrack was used to defeat the
Liberals in the 1930 election. The main issue was the rapid deterioration in the economy
and whether the prime minister was out of touch with the hardships of ordinary people.
The winner of the 1930 election was Richard Bedford Bennett and the Conservatives. Bennett,
a successful Western businessman, campaigned on high tariffs and large scale spending,
but as deficits increased he became wary and cut back severely on Federal spending. With
falling support and the depression only getting worse Bennett attempted to introduce policies
based on the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in the United States, but
this was largely unsuccessful. The government became a focus of popular discontent, even
though its policies were largely the same as those of other Western governments. Canadian
car owners who could no longer afford gasoline reverted to having their vehicles pulled by
horses and dubbed them Bennett Buggies. Bennett’s perceived failures during the Great Depression
led to the re-election of Mackenzie King’s Liberals in the 1935 election.
Although the United States began to see rapid improvements as a result of FDR’s policies,
Canada saw far less growth. Nevertheless, by 1936 the worst of the Depression was over.
Mackenzie King implemented some relief programs such as the National Housing Act and National
Employment Commission, and also established the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (1936)
and Trans-Canada Airlines (1937, the precursor to Air Canada). However, it took until 1939
and the outbreak of war for the Canadian economy to return to 1929 levels.===New parties===The Progressive and United Farmers Parties
had achieved some success in the 1920s, but during the 1930s, their members generally
joined other parties, like the Social Credit movement and the Cooperative Commonwealth
Federation. In Alberta, a Christian radio broadcaster
named William “Bible Bill” Aberhart became interested in politics partly because the
Great Depression had been especially harsh on Albertan farmers. Particularly, he was
drawn to the “social credit” theories of Major C. H. Douglas, a Scottish engineer. From 1932
to 1935, Aberhart lobbied for the governing political party, the United Farmers of Alberta,
to adopt these theories. The basis of social credit is that the difference in production
cost and individuals’ purchasing power should be supplemented through government grants.
When these efforts failed, Aberhart helped found the Social Credit Party of Alberta,
which won the 1935 provincial election by a landslide with over 54% of the popular vote. The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)
was founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative
and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. The CCF aimed to alleviate
the suffering of the Great Depression through economic reform and public “co-operation”.
Many of the party’s first Members of Parliament (MPs) were former members of the Ginger Group
of left-wing Progressive and Labour MPs. In its first election in 1935, seven CCF MPs
were elected to the House of Commons of Canada. Eight were elected in the following election
in 1940. The period also saw the rise of the openly
fascist National Unity Party (NUP) and the Communist Party of Canada, which was declared
illegal under Section 98 of the Criminal Code from 1931 to 1936. The party continued to
exist, but was under the constant threat of legal harassment, and was for all intents
and purposes an underground organization until 1936. The party greatly contributed in the
mobilization of volunteers to fight in the Spanish Civil War. The NUP and, again, the
Communist Party were banned in 1940.===On to Ottawa Trek===The depression had crippled the economy and
left one in nine Canadians on relief. Nor did relief come free; the Bennett government
had asked the Canadian Department of National Defense to organize work camps where the labour
of unemployed single men was used to construct roads and other public works with little remuneration.
The poor working conditions in the camps led to serious unrest, including a major strike
in Vancouver in April 1935. The strikers’ demands included adequate first aid equipment
in the camps, the extension of the Workmen’s Compensation Act to include camp workers,
and that workers in camps be granted the right to vote in Federal elections. Public support
was enormous, and the action snowballed into a bigger movement when the men decided to
take their grievances to the federal government. In June 1935, hundreds of men boarded boxcars
headed East in what would come to be known as the “On to Ottawa Trek”.
The protest was halted, however, before it could reach the capital. In Regina, the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) confined the protesters in a local stadium. Only the eight
leaders of the protest were actually allowed to proceed to Ottawa, where they were granted
a meeting with Prime Minister R.B. Bennett. Bennett attacked the group as radicals, and
eventually had the delegation hustled out of his office. Upon returning to Regina to
unite with the rest of the protesters, they organized large public rallies, which broke
out into riots when the Federal government deployed police to break up the rallies and
arrest the leaders. Two people were killed as a result of the riot and many more injured.
When the trek was over the government provided free transportation back to the camps. These
camps were soon abolished following Bennett’s electoral defeat, and new, less extensive,
relief work schemes were devised on farms and in forestry camps in conjunction with
provincial governments, and pay rates changed from twenty-cents a day to five dollars a
month.==Canadian foreign policy in the Interwar
Years==At the end of World War I Canada was a founding
member of the League of Nations and was granted full membership. But the Borden and King governments
made it clear that “Canada lived ‘in a fireproof house far from flammable materials’ and felt
no automatic obligation to the principle of collective security”. Very much like the United
States, after the great war Canada turned away from international politics. Instead,
King focused his attention on good relations with the United States and on greater independence
from Great Britain, moving into a position of near isolation. Thus, in 1922 King refused
to support the British to enforce a peace settlement during the Chanak Crisis, when
revolutionary Turkey attacked and drove out the Greek in Asia Minor. At an Imperial Conference
in 1923 it was agreed that no resolution was binding unless approved by each dominion parliament.
Canada then for the first time signed a treaty (the 1923 Halibut Treaty with the US) without
British participation, and it proceeded to establish its own embassy in Washington. Further
steps to independence were the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and the Statute of Westminster in
1931. Canadians were all the more preoccupied with
domestic economic problems and chose to remain neutral throughout the 1930s. Japan’s invasion
of Manchuria raised little concern in Canada, as did Hitler’s rise to power in 1933 or Italy’s
invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. The Canadian government declared its neutrality on the
outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 where Francisco Franco lead a military uprising,
supported with military hardware and tens of thousands of troops by Nazi Germany and
Fascist Italy against the legitimate Spanish government. Nevertheless, many Canadians volunteered
to fight for the Spanish Republic in the International Brigades and couldn’t be deterred by the Foreign
Enlistment Act of 1937, outlawing participation by Canadians in foreign wars. Eventually,
1,546 Canadians participated, mainly in the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion (also called
“Mac-Paps”) of which 721 were killed. Except for France, no other country gave as great
a proportion of its population as volunteers in Spain than Canada.Despite its expressed
neutrality, in 1936, Canada began a modest program of rearmament and in 1937, King let
Britain know that Canada would support the Empire in case of a war in Europe. He visited
Germany in June 1937 and met with Adolf Hitler. Like many other political leaders of the time,
King was seduced by Hitler’s charm and rehearsed simplicity and he supported the policy of
“appeasement” of Germany. King and other leaders remained quiet when Hitler annexed Austria
in 1938 and Bohemia in 1939.With the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany and the growing
trickle of refugees arriving in the country, Canada began to actively restrict Jewish immigration
by 1938. Frederick Charles Blair, the country’s top immigration bureaucrat, raised the amount
of money immigrants had to possess to come to Canada from $5,000 to $15,000. As well,
immigrants had to prove they were farmers, which no Jew coming from central Europe was.
Senator Cairine Wilson was one of the country’s leading voices against fascism and one of
the few non-Jews lobbying for the refugees but she was unable to get Mackenzie King to
intervene. For King himself shared the anti-Semitism of many Canadians; in his diary he wrote:
“We must seek to keep this part of the continent free from unrest and from too great an intermixture
of foreign strains of blood.” “Through government inaction and Blair’s bureaucratic
anti-Semitism, Canada emerged from the war with one of the worst records of Jewish refugee
resettlement in the world. Between 1933 and 1939, Canada accepted only 4,000 of the 800,000
Jews who had escaped from Nazi-controlled Europe.”==World War II==The Canadian economy, like the economies of
many other countries, improved in an unexpected way with the outbreak of the Second World
War. When Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, Mackenzie King was finally convinced
that military action would be necessary, but advised George VI, King of Canada, to wait
until September 10, after parliament had debated the matter, to declare war (unlike World War
I, when Canada was automatically at war as soon as Britain was). Ultimately, more than
one million Canadians served in armed forces.===Military accomplishments===
One of Canada’s major contributions to the war was the Commonwealth Air Training Plan,
in which over 140,000 Allied pilots and air crews received training at bases in Canada.
Canada is widely recognized for its key role in the Battle of the Atlantic. The first major
land actions of the war, at Hong Kong and Dieppe, were unsuccessful. The bulk of Canadian
land forces remained undeployed until the landings in Sicily and Italy in 1943. In 1944,
Canadian forces successfully captured Juno Beach during the Battle of Normandy, and by
the autumn, an entire field army under Canadian command was instrumental in liberating the
Netherlands, for which many Dutch still fondly remember Canadians today.===Women===
Women began to play a more significant part in war efforts, joining the armed forces for
the first time (aside from nursing) by means of the Canadian Women’s Army Corps, the Royal
Canadian Air Force Women’s Division, and the Royal Canadian Naval Women’s Service (Wrens).
Although women were still not allowed to enter combat, they performed a number of other roles
in clerical, administrative, and communications divisions. A total of 45,423 women enlisted
during the course of the war, and one in nine served overseas.With over a million Canadians
serving in the Armed Forces during the war, enormous new employment opportunities appeared
for women in workplaces previously unknown to them. To encourage women to work in factories,
machine shops, and other heavy industries, the Canadian government offered free child-care
and tax breaks. Elsie MacGill, an aeronautical engineer who supervised the production of
Hawker Hurricane aircraft for the Canada Car and Foundry Company became a celebrated war
hero known as “Queen of the Hurricanes.”===Aid to the United Kingdom===The Gander Air Base now known as Gander International
Airport built in 1936 in the Dominion of Newfoundland was leased by the UK to Canada for 99 years
because of its urgent need for the movement of fighter and bomber aircraft to the UK.
Canada gave the United Kingdom gifts totalling $3.5 billion during the war; the UK used it
to buy Canadian food and war supplies.===The conscription crisis of 1944===As in World War I, the number of volunteers
began to run dry as the war dragged on. Mackenzie King had promised, like Borden, not to introduce
conscription, though his position was somewhat ambiguous: as he declared to the House of
Commons on June 10, 1942: “Not necessarily conscription but conscription if necessary.”
With rising pressure from the people, on June 21, 1940, King passed the National Resources
Mobilization Act (NRMA) which gave the government the power to “call out every man in Canada
for military training for the defence of Canada”, and only Canada. Conscripts could not be sent
overseas to fight. English Canadians, expectedly, were displeased and took to calling these
soldiers “zombies” who they stereotyped as French Canadians who were “sitting comfortably”
while their countrymen died. On April 27, 1942, Mackenzie King held a national
plebiscite to decide on the issue, having made campaign promises to avoid conscription
(and, it is thought, winning the election on that very point). The majority of English
Canadians voted in favour of the conscription, while the majority of French Canadians did
not. Nevertheless, the final result was a yes, which granted King the permission to
bring in a conscription law if he wanted. However, the issue was put off for another
two years, until November 1944 when King decided on a levy of NRMA troops for overseas service.
There were riots in Quebec and a mutiny by conscripts based in Terrace, British Columbia.
An aged Henri Bourassa also spoke out against the decision.
Some 13,000 NRMA men eventually left Canada, but only 2,463 reached units in the field
before the end of the fighting. 69 died in battle.===Japanese internment===When Canada declared war on Japan in December
1941, members of the non-Japanese population of British Columbia, including municipal government
offices, local newspapers and businesses called for the internment of the Japanese. In British
Columbia, some claimed that Japanese residents who worked in the fishing industry were charting
the coastline for the Japanese navy, and many of their boats were confiscated. The pressure
from the public was so great that early in 1942 the government gave in to the pressure
and began the internment of both Japanese nationals and Japanese Canadian citizens.
Most of the nearly 22,000 people of Japanese descent who lived in Canada were naturalized
or native-born citizens. Those unwilling to live in internment camps faced the possibility
of deportation to Japan. Unlike Japanese American internment, where
families were generally kept together, Canada initially sent its male evacuees to road camps
in the British Columbian interior, to sugar beet projects on the Prairies, or to internment
in a POW camp in Ontario, while women and children were moved to six inland British
Columbia towns. There, the living conditions were so poor that the citizens of wartime
Japan even sent supplemental food shipments through the Red Cross. During the period of
detention, the Canadian government spent one-third the per capita amount expended by the U.S.
on Japanese American evacuees.==See also==Heritage Minutes
History of Canada History of the Canadian Army
Military history of Canada

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