History of China | CIA Documentary on a Communist Empire | 1967

Bhushan in China bloodiest and most terrible of all an entire civilization blown apart [Applause] [Applause] there are 700 million Chinese today 1/4 of the human race and they are taught to hate their growing power as the world's greatest threat to peace and light fifty years of torment bred madness to deal with madness we must understand its roots see China's revolution through the eyes of those who were there for seven pivotal years author historian Theodore white lived in China knew the men who now control her destiny with him we shall look back at a century of tragedy for 18 years we of the West have been excluded from China we can pace along this barbed-wire border at Hong Kong and try to squint inside or strain out sounds but all we hear is echo of disaster past and present when we ask why there is no other book of answers but the history of this century for both of us Chinese and Westerners have shared the blunders that transformed our greatest friend in Asia into our greatest enemy Theodore hy tak all those of us who lived in China in the crisis decade remember it all so differently so close they were in friendship to us finger tear close and now their fists are bald and anger they were looking for some entry into the modern world and nothing in their ancient culture could give them any guide to the turbulence they found but could we help them it was a quest a 50-year search for some new kind of government some new form of order and in the end they moved from tyranny to tyranny from the tyranny of Confucius of the Manchu Emperor's to the tyranny of communism and Mao and in between we have only fitful glimpses of what happened snatches of photography so tantalizingly incomplete to explain what happened it all began in mystery and goes on today in mystery for 2,000 years we tried to read this Chinese mystery but read it for book of myths and trancing age-old myths brought back by travellers from beyond the mountain walls of Asia where they had found a land of changeless wonders a strange serenity of spirit graced its hills with beauty's bridges arched across the rivers as much to sue the eye as help the Wayfarer the silent shriek of violence at art might catch attention but that was echo of an anger we did not fathom the same mythical serenity rested on all the fields of this land of peasants a biblical rhythm carrying men from sowing to harvest from birth to death an apparent contentment the old myth held that China had solved the great secret of government Confucius half God half sage and taught order and duty these make government each men fixed in place bound in obedience to those above as those above were bound and obedience to the will of heaven the Emperor they called the son of heaven tenza because only he interpreted the will of heaven in his land for 1,500 miles ran the Great Wall ceiling in a nation so proud it you itself only as jewel wall the central Kingdom all other men barbarians for 2,000 years behind this wall proud China knew herself invulnerable for centuries China let barbarian Westerners dock only at Canton to buy her precious silks her porcelain her team to pay for these Englishmen introduced opium from India by 1830 this trade was booming China protested burn the opium and the bark of English warship says war broke out in 1839 first shattered myths of Chinese power the result defeat disaster aboard a British warship in 1842 came humiliation with China forced by treaty to yield Hong Kong outright and open for more coastal cities to British merchants and their opium where Britain led others followed rival powers raced each other to carve proud china as spoils English French Americans Germans Russians demanded privileges colonies concessions in 60 years had won the right to govern try punish Chinese in their own land in China's capital Peking where from these ancient altars countless Emperor's had sought the Mandate of Heaven the myth of heavenly rule persisted still but deep within the palaces where China's Manchu Emperor's reigned by 1900 that myth too was dead for here ruled China's evil spirit the Empress dowager's is seen a Manchu concubine fed made to an emperor for whom she had produced an heir a woman with a gift of malice said to have poisoned her own son upon his throne installed her infant nephew as Emperor he killed his mother and then imprisoned him in 1898 an ignorant woman but unchallenged ruler of the Empire her court a whispering of ladies-in-waiting and unit favorites chief among them eunuch Li Lian yang as depraved as she went old China needed ships to fight the foreigners they used naval appropriations to build a marble pleasure boat in a nearby lake only one conviction bound her to her people hatred of the contemptuous foreigner who tramped her land a thousand villages deep in China mirrored her primitive hatred of the foreign devil moreover their passions had found flag and leaders as a secret Brotherhood the boxers began to flourish kill the white man burned his mission said the boxers claiming magic charms could make their bodies impervious to Western bullets with the Empress consent in early 1900 they began to kill one of America's great novelists then the missionary child was at the time in China miss Pearl Buck recalls members gahjii and issued an edict that all white people were to be killed and many had been killed especially in the north in Shandong where men women and children of missionaries and businesspeople too had been killed but we were so fortunate because we live in the province of Jang su and we had a very good viceroy an intelligent man and he knew that it was folly but it all first to think that she could gain anything by killing the missionaries and the business people because there would be terrible retribution and so he was so courageous as to insert a negative and no a not into the Imperial edict serving it red we were not to be killed and that's what saved our lives here at Peking within these massive walls for almost two months 3,000 foreigners and Christian converts gathered on the siege to fight for life there sandbagged embassies of Bastion against Boxer phonetic from around the world navies rush troops to raise the siege Britain's Americans Russians French Germans Japanese raced with field guns and modern rifles whose bullets no boxer magic could resist victory was swift punishment ruthless north-to-south foreign force patrolled the country Japanese soldiers began to explore China's wealth and covet more in the shadow of P Kings mighty ramparts American soldiers tasted war on Asia's mainland for the first time and frolicked China forever humbled foreign diplomats and generals debated China's fate this land of endless villages crowding each other against the skyline was it really a nation or only a geographical expression these peasants was there recent outburst of passion of passing madness or something deeper their government smashed still they toiled as they had for centuries in the three great river valleys falling from the heights of Central Asia to shape their country in the North Manchuria and the valley of the Yellow River cradled one kind of Chinese for home Peking the Manchu capital was their center air-dried northern Wheatlands rolled over an unknown treasure store of minerals which Russia and Japan both sought in the center the valley of the mighty Yangtze with its key cities Shanghai Nanking Pankow Chongqing where British and American power turned the wheels of Industry boiled the way of Commerce in the south the third Valley the West River flowing by Canton to empty at Hong Kong in the sea in a steaming Southland peasants stooped in paddies to plant rice had spoke a dialect no Peking Chinese could even faintly comprehend the coastal cities where most Westerners lived squirmed with jostling people animal energy humans used as beasts in street and field most still wore pigtails forced on them a symbol of submission to the Manchu dynasty and its Sun of heaven but within the old Forbidden City there was no government no Sun of heaven the aging Empress Dowager her spirit broken by the Boxer war lingered dying until 1908 and then for all intents and purposes the throne was empty save for an infant of three years install to sit in it and then it vanished simply vanished the Manchu dynasty disappeared overnight nothing like this has ever happened in all history 2,000 years of tradition the whole structure of the Imperial Confucian political thought dissolving to dust the Chinese give it a name and a date they call it Shuang double ten the date being October 10 19 1 a riot occurred in the Yankee Valley which they couldn't suppress and five weeks later the regime had disappeared the dynasty overthrown never to reappear again in history and out of this turbulence that emerge two types of Asian leader arch symbols the man of guns and the man of ideas and these two types the gunman and the dreamer have perplexed all our efforts in Asia for the 50 years since and they still perplex and haunt all our policy even today in Asian politics gunmen rise first general un shik I seized power at Peking turned loose lesser generals to ransack provinces briefly he gathered a puppet assembly imported an American professor to write a constitution for a republic but old ways were easier returning to Confucian order in 1915 un named himself Emperor and six later died his rival Sun yat-sen was the man of dreams the dream of China powerful free of emperors and foreigners made him from his youth a revolutionary students teachers merchants meeting in such secret headquarters joined his conspiracy on postcards he scrawled a Rising Sun emblem of a new flag someday to be for 20 years he planned destruction of the Manchu tyrants to see his dreams betray by UN Chi Chi but his ideas were catching fire in 1919 students throbbing to his fiery message sick of chaos furious at foreign pillage angered by Japan's demands for more of China filled the streets with protests riots but students had no guns ideas no armies armies belong to warlord generals the heirs of un chi chi power and force were theirs whether trained to fight with Manchu broadsword or equipped with second hand artillery laughable to Europeans in China such troops struck terror their purpose simple to rule by killing for 15 years a dozen regional overlords subdivided morsel doubt provinces to lesser feudal warlords by the score warlord armies came in all shapes and weapon leaves as colorful as such grotesque commanders as giant jong-seong Zhang of legendary sexual appetite ENC shun the treacherous drug addict will pay fool lover of flowers and gardens they never thought of the grain they thought it was foolish to go out in the rain and fight so if there's a rainy day you were quite safe and comfortable and then of course they all usually began it at a certain time they seldom began before 10 o'clock after everybody he got his good breakfast and all that they always took off for lunch and then by sunset doesn't matter how hot the battle had been when the Sun set everything stopped and quieted down for the night so he would get a good night's sleep and be ready to fight the next day China watched such troops in shame craving order knowing sorrow Overlord in Manchuria was John zulan beginning life a common bandit this scheming marshal had learned to mock ol Chinese law flout all patriotic need bribed by Japanese industrialists protected by their Garrison's his soldiers let the Japanese aliens exploit this northern treasure land at will even the best of warlords fungus yung the Christian general who baptized soldiers with a firehose insisting cleanliness is next to godliness groped in vain to find a spark to unify his nation in every Valley town and village men trembled at the site of warlord soldiers death came by twitch of trigger in gusts of senseless cruelty and life became so cheap that death itself became a spectacle [Applause] children growing up became a new urge to violence a culture of scholars transformed by killing in flight from warlords droughts and taxes from loot and ravine refugees knew that only in the colonies and concessions of hated foreigners could they seek safety here beggars for their bread they might find mercy a former State Department officer Ernest price remembers China in the mid 20s we hit the country at a time of terrific heat wave and at the same time drought in the great valleys that's our train pulled through this area little boys at the stations would come out pot-bellied spindle Leggett and holding out their hands and saying dollar yet doll liar please master please we were horrified we never seen anything like it and one of our negation officials said now boys I want to tell you something don't let this get under your skin this other thing you're going to see a lot more of it in China in the Western enclaves of the coast life for foreigners went on unchanged here the skyline walled from passing tourists the sight of Chinese anguish while permanent expatriates returned each afternoon to homes of splendor where countless servants made for master and his Missy lady a sunlit way of life old China hands still mourn from Shanghai foreigners controlled most Chinese industries mines mills and railways they set her tariffs collected taxes prosperity rested as it always had on foreign guns and gunboats within Hills shelter Western pleasures undisturbed rolled on at race courses and at resorts Chinese appeared as always servants only at Western clubs the tinkle of ice and cocktails rose above the muffled sound of warlord guns outside yet even in Shanghai if one listened one could hear another note in the streets students were calling for revolt middle class youngsters yet their message caught the year of workers – by 1925 a fervent unsettled every major city symbol of all protest was Sun yat-sen who called on China to slay the dragon of imperialism slowly through the early 1920s Sun yat-sen had somehow built a government one a tiny southern foothold at Canton ringed by hostile warlords by 1924 the aging revolutionary had learned ideas and guns must go together ideas he hammered into three principles called son Ming Zhu e first nationalism next democracy then socialism to his Nationalist Party the woman done he now insists to conquer China they must fight to throw the Warlord's and imperialists out they will get guns for he has found them spurned by the West in 1923 he tells the New York Times we have lost hope of help from America England France the only country that shows any sign of helping us in the south is the Soviet government of Russia flatly this report concludes the prevailing foreign estimate of dr. Sun has been that he is a dreamer and therefore dangerous arch symbol of Russian help is Michael Coradin veteran agent of the Comintern who brings the guidance of the Bolsheviks two sons dreaming counseling scheming urging the mentor communist becomes an all pervasive influence and uses Sun yat-sen to let the tiny Chinese Communist Party 430 members join sons nationalists son gathers new style Chinese officers to fight for country not for loop of these his favorite is John kai-shek said hastily to Russia for training Jeong soon returns directs the Whampoa Military Academy at Canton where Patriots are trained by Russians to Officer armies that will give the dream fresh muscle some scholars say that at this point the Chinese leader recoiled at communism prepared to break with Russia but no one knows for in March 1925 death cuts across the revolution son dies of cancer mandarins scholars warlords soldiers filed by his bier in homage all claim his message as their legacy scuffle for his metal a year's turmoil thrusts up the air Sun yat-sen's soldier favorite Jean kai-shek at 38 he sees his leadership at Canton headquarters of the Guangdong this man is known to Westerners only as a fiery nationalist and revolutionary as he mobilizes under Suns new flag all China waits for him to strike against the Warlord's July 9th 1926 babe Bob marched north against John slim divisions are marshaled half a million warlord troops a political earthquake Ren's the land for these are soldiers of a different kind fighting for a cause and country they stormed through villages and fields victorious as much by spirit as by guns accompanied by Borodin a Russian staff their wives Jon's headquarters pushes north by train a forward fan of young revolutionaries nationalist and communist the light precedes the troops calling to arms peasants and workers who surged to join the banners of the new day dawning quondam then unnoticed is a communist intellectual mouths a dome then 33 directing scores of peasant agitators to summon fury for the revolution by Paul they take Hankow the nationalist revolution moves its capital there and then exultant Lee raids the British concession burns down foreign buildings tears down or inflames the tide rolls on for Pankow down the river in April John kai-shek has reached Nanking and then a port John Waits upriver at Hankow left-wing leaders of the gorman Don no longer trust their armies leader at the front Borodin is urging get rid of Jang kai-shek in four short years the Communists have grown to 60,000 members they urge the left wing nationalists no revolution is complete until peasants own their land workers their factories Jang disagreed scholars of Chinese history still debate with enormous fury exactly what happened next and why but I think it's the classic revolutionary question who gets power to whom the fruits of victory no one knows what went on in junk I shakes mine but I think one thing must have been clear to him either they were going to get him or he was going to get them and he wasn't about to be dismissed the way Sun yat-sen had been dismissed from power by warlords so often it was a question of who would strike first and he struck first April 12 1927 in Shanghai was the night of terror the young troops rounded up and butchered hundreds of communists students union leaders anybody they suspected when the day rose he was in complete control of all the lower Yangtze Valley and after that for months and months through 1927 it becomes a great big bloody boiling stew as left-wing and right-wing fighting warlords get into the act and communists try to stage uprisings and it all ends its ends in tragedy because for so long this country torn apart had waited for a government to give it unity and dignity it expected so much of this revolution and now they found that revolutionaries can be butchers too and this long tormented quest for a new order was to end in this squalor and it ended finally in December 1927 in Canton when on orders from the Comintern the Communists attempted to stage a massive uprising and seize that industrial city and the gourmand instruct back with – terror professor Earl Swisher witnessed the event the nationís forces came in on Tuesday afternoon I was fighting and burning of parts of the city during the night and then the mapa came on Wednesday morning after the coup had lasted only about 48 hours identification of communist was a very simple matter they had wrapped read purchase around their necks to identify them as communist and when the coup collapsed these were hurriedly stripped off to remove the identification but in the rather humid climate the red scarfs left marks on their necks and so that a communist was anyone with a red neck the destruction of communists was a very simple process of rounding but up everyone was a red stain on his neck and executing some thought communism in China forever quenched but Mao Zedong did not he had escaped and watched in hiding he would return to fight another day in the cities of the Yangtze children and teachers businessmen and soldiers pulse to John's call to north south and east warlord still ring him round but the winds of fortune favored his expansion may I introduce to the audience the president of the national government of the Republic of China Simon divisors long list three people's principles boom coming coming giggling either long live the revolutionary spirit of the nationalist China a fresh new face enters his life the beautiful mailing song sister of Madame Sun yat-sen american-trained Wellesley educated Jung takes her hand in marriage she has to be a major shaping influence in all his future thinking by 1929 John has built a majestic mausoleum for Sun yat-sen at his new capital Nanking there the body of the hero is brought pearl book remembers that day John Kasich came in and Rob's great hopes and everyone I remember the first time I was done was at the funeral of Sun yat-sen four years after Sun yat-sen died his embalm body was brought to Nanking to be buried in a great new tomb on the mountain there first time I saw him face to face a very striking man with very striking bold black eyes and he had a presence and I think that he might have been a great first emperor if there had been a throne to sit upon that was the tragedy that the very structure of government was destroyed by the revolution so that there wasn't a government and he had to begin that government from the bottom and he didn't understand government he was a soldier and he didn't know how to make the government and he was had plenty of advisers most of them young PhDs in the United States very impractical and idealistic and they didn't know how to make the government and all the time he had the Communists to fight and he also had the Japanese threatening it was a very difficult situation I've never inclined to to blame him to westernize this soldiers rule seems like the first firm government of China in many years Jeong to was changing for his wife as much American and thought as Chinese leads him to see the United States as friend a source of loans and help as new railway stretch their tracks across the country the new Gorman Don or de Jong has brought begins to offer comfort and luxuries to the cities he controls industry booms production soars engineers and young industrialists find for the first time careers opening to modern talents universities flourish parade their graduates full of hope in cities department stores begin to offer Chinese taste of every modern where modern dress takes subtle hold on Chinese fashion while rich Chinese in centers like Shanghai begin enjoying privileges until now saved for foreigners in Shanghai dancing sweetheart with you in my mom dear away from harm dear we let the world go by not such froth however but the primordial appeal of Chinese nationalism is changing Asian politics even in Manchuria the call of patriotism twinges the conscience of warlords on Celyn causing him to flout his Japanese protectors traveling by rail in summer 1928 Jang Celyn meets his death a Japanese plot blasting him to bits punishes him for what they call his treachery his son young marshal Jung soo-jung succeeds to power in Manchuria this Junior warlord knows he must serve Japan as puppet or go with nationalism he chooses John in Japan this switch sets off alarm military men controlled Japan they mobilize they must strike soon they know if Jang extends his sway to vast Manchuria if China's 400 million people unify that they must certainly lose the Asian mainland September 18th 1931 attack begins which marshal Jang soo Yung's warlord soldiers cannot stop and john kai-shek is powerless to help striking simultaneously at half a dozen different points the soldiers of Japan seize towns and rails by spring of 32 they hold all Manchuria rename it Mantua a puppet state at their command rage sweeps China generals exhort their troops to stand by for the counter blow demand a war of national resistance to Japan right now for Jang the problem pinches his foot soldier armies may be stronger than old warlord armies yet they lack tanks have old artillery are just beginning to understand the airplane he knows they cannot match the modern weapons of Japan not only that he means a nation still divided the Communists struck down for good in 1927 have somehow swelled by 30 to 2 major force again It was as if a ghost to Dresden from the dead when Mao had fled in 27 with his thousand communist allies he was already disgusted with Borodin and clumsy Russian doctrine he felt the key to revolution Asia lay in the peasants of the countryside not the big city proletariat 80% all Chinese peasants lived in bleak and filthy villages treated like brutes imprisoned by official landlords alone shocks and Mao's idea was simple turn the hidden peasant anger against the local gentry the local rich as well as the unknown foreign let terror claimed revenge by stealth and night use pitchfork guns knives grenades give guns to anger none of this idea he created this black miracle of his the doctrine of partisan warfare divide the land among the landless rip out roads bridges railways so that formal armies will have to slog on foot dissolve in Garrison's bogged down transform the countryside into a total environment of 8 but woman children everyone not be afraid to die this political warfare raised to the nth degree and by 1932 he controlled a good chunk of the two provinces of Hunan and see and claimed the loyalty of nine million people Jang insists he cannot resist Japan unless he first has crushed this enemy within from 1930 to 1935 he drives his troops to fight his narrow military politics sees only one solution force must root out Mao's ideas with bayonets with communism no compromise year after year this civil war goes on as expedition after expedition grinds into failure and peasant Ambus kade guerrilla war an american newsreel of the early 1930s innocently reports this nameless civil war trouble china turns on the enemy within her gates these bombing planes of a nineteen government get ready to attack the rebel strongholds in Kang's eye contact I am with the mountains Movietone flies for the air forces of president Chiang kai-shek this is an actual bombing raid and as we sight the first of the rebel villages we commence the attack [Applause] Chiang kai-shek is making desperate efforts unite the various provinces of China many of which are torn by internal dissension and if he can't do it one way he tries another including bomb china Far East land of ancient culture land of bloodshed rebellion and war by 1934 Jang has forged a blockhouse ring around Mao's Communists and squeezing ever tighter feel certain they are trapped in one of the most amazing episodes in history as Joey's Dae hoon droving in to tie bands they fooled through his fingers in October thirty four ninety thousand men and women set out not just an army but the government an idea carrying all the records with them on the little yo-yo sticks on what they called the long march it's a thousand mile track they made from jeongseon Hunan South to gray Jo and up to the gradual plateau and up across the foothills of Tibet and then down again out of the mountains down into Shanxi where in these dry and windswept Hills they made their base 90,000 had set out they arrived a year later in October 1935 20,000 left and there they were to dig in this is how Western has saw them in these yellow barren hills we're calling peasants to their cars they finally fended off Young's pursuit in 1936 however Mao's line changes he calls for unity against Japan rich and poor must stand together an end to civil war nationalist communist warlord all must stand as brothers against the alien threat this new line appeals to millions but not to Jiang kai-shek he his inner councils and his generals persist final mop-up of the Communists must still go on and trusted now two friendly waddles in the north yet mysteriously this final mop-up stalls the most important front against the communists is held by soldiers of Manchuria driven out by Japanese these homesick troops have little stomach for killing other Chinese led by young marshal Jung soo-jung they itch to tackle Japanese in December 1936 Jang flies off to see the young marshal in CN to flog him onto sterner effort in CN however communists have convinced the young marshal that civil war must stop then there happens one of those episodes that sound as if they were written in the book of make-believe and again we have no photographs because no one invites a photographer to witness a kidnapping which was what happened next Jang was there to urge them to fight the Communists and on the night of December 11th he was sleeping in a villa outside of town when he was awakened by gunfire and the young marshal and his troops was shooting their way into his villa and trying to kidnap him Jang was in his nightshirt and bare feet he slipped out the back way tried to climb over the wall fell he hurt his back he lost his false teeth his feet were bleeding as he ran over the rocks and the young martial soldiers caught him and brought him back it sounds mad but that's the way China was and it got even madder because when they brought him back they invited the Communists down from North Shenzhen on December 15th the Communists the young marshal and John all sat down to talk the Communist new young marshal said to junk I checked it's time to end the civil war we must all unite against the Japanese or else they could have killed him but they didn't and john kai-shek agreed he would halt the civil and he would form a united front against the Japanese and so on Christmas Day they gave him a plane and John kai-shek and the young marshal flew down to Nanking to announce the civil war was over but John had made no promises to the young marshal so he imprisoned him immediately and kept him prisoner ever after even to this day in exile on Formosa Christmas 1936 at Nanking members of the government await their presidents return in pain he hobbled out announces to the world a popular front of Gorman dong and communists will now united under his command turn to face the Menace of Japan Japan's Imperial tradition has however a cardinal rule always strike first July 1937 the war is on the Japanese now seek total conquest not just another chunk of territory they blast the heart of China in the Yangtze Valley with Shanghai first to take the shot the Imperial Navy shelled Shanghai at point-blank range a century since Britain first blasted China open a generation since the bloodshed of the boxers babies have grown to manhood without a year of peace for 25 years China has lived with warlords guns and terror but now it must drink deeper of the cup of bitterness 19 this morning had it twenty eighth grade I am speaking to you just as the echoes of exploding bombs have died down death comes from the clear blue sky just as it has come to thousands of our innocent people throughout the land of our land November Shanghai fall December Nanking is sacked and raped to the winter and spring 38 the Japanese push up the Yangtze destroying the decade-long achievement of john kai-shek ravaging the cities on which all future hope of nationalist China rest in the north a different vision of tomorrow's China guides the Communists in a village in a mountain gulch they make a capital in on headquarters have paper windows furnishings of bamboo their troops are called the Chinese 8th route army but the United Front dissolves red generals ignore John's orders their strategy makes an independent war against Japan in rear areas like Yunnan soldiers raised their food Mao himself grows tobacco Judah the Red Army's commander-in-chief hose his own cabbage patch peasant women spin and so the cloth for uniforms fashions straw sandals for the soldiers the mind of Mao Zedong sees warfare differently from other men I remember mouths are doing saying to me that Americans thought the Communists would lose that they saw the Communists in the hills of yen on walking around with straw sandals a ragamuffin army and he said that any wise European who had seen George Washington's people at Valley Forge would have said that George Washington was going to lose he said it's true he said that the Japanese and John kai-shek have electricity airplanes tanks and we have nothing he said but then he said the British had all those things and George Washington didn't have electricity and yet George Washington won you suddenly realize with a start that Majnoon was not really sure of when and in what century electricity was introduced that his the structure of his knowledge was totally different from the structure of junk I shacks and ours mouths knowledge of Asian war however is unmatchable with these generals he lifts the doctrine of partisan warfare to new levels Lin Biao directs Conda training school for guerrilla leaders judor deploys guerrilla bands hundreds of miles and Japan's rear the people are the C says mounted or guerillas are like fish who swim in the sea within a year such troops gathered 200,000 peasant soldiers the Japanese may see cities but the eighth route army holds all north China countryside about them in the NZ Valley however all through summer 38 fortress after Fortress of junk I shek falls the Japanese crunch on by October his last two Citadel's are doomed first Canton that four days later Hankow Falls killing prisoners spreading horror where they go the Japanese convince themselves that sheer stark terror will now at last persuade the Nationalists who quit the war is won yet still there preludes them from banco Jang has planned retreat his government is to settle at Chongqing in China's deepest mountain fastness which won the National is set out pack laborers salvaged from the burning cities what few machines they can students Holloway school libraries beyond the mountains lies the safety of the situation it's only entry by the cleft the Yangtze cuts a steeper climb say Chinese poets than the climb to heaven itself retreat continues all through winter expression of a will to fight that no disaster has diminished up through these gorges they pull or pole their boats until finally in 1939 the rear most excellent of the sad procession drags through behind they scorch a tracklist belt of no-man's land to guard these last interior strongholds from the Japanese chunking is now the wartime capital a city of another age almost unchanged in sight or smell or sound from Manchu China and here among these backward peasants the government digs in spurning all Japanese peace proposals the Chinese braced themselves for certain havoc and in the spring of 39 it comes day and night the bombs continue yet John persists powerless to strike back John knows only America can help his diplomats in Washington seek aid yet he has other troubles too it was about this time in 1941 at the height of the bombing that had my first talk with Jung kai-shek about the war against Japan and its strategy and at the end almost doesn't after thought he said remember the Japanese are a disease of the skin but the Communists are a disease of the heart that seemed odd to me because at that time the Japanese were bombing the daylights out of both John kai-shek and the Communists both of whom were allied against the Japanese but now in retrospect seems to me in almost prophetic remark almost a vision of an apocalypse to come those whom the gods destroy they first make mad on December 7th 1941 madness ceases the Japanese striking at Pearl Harbor they hope to force America's consent to their conquest of China now China has a mighty ally America's arms will soon be theirs geography destroys this hope suppliers must crawl across the ocean to get to India then be flown to China across the Japanese blockade American pilots braved the topless Himalayas to fly the hump and carry what they can get averaged only a few thousand tons a month for the army of four billion Chinese soldiers feeding an elephant with an eyedropper an American veteran calls it discouraged Chinese leaders say our Arsenal's make only 15 million bullets a month just for per soldier how can we fight Americans discover there are other reasons for poor Chinese morale graphed in their Army's generals corrupt incompetent the soldiers ill shod underfed and sick Major General Frank Dorn recalls his training mission at the time a visiting American general from Washington asked me if he could see them Chinese troops marching on the road so we drove out and the first thing we saw of course was that the majority majority of the troop men had dogs of one kind of description sighs anything that they could have stole him along the way on ropes on leashes on anything and he smiled and said here they are the GIS the world over they all love dogs and I said yes they certainly love these and he want to know what I meant by that and I said well this is their rations when they run out of rice and other food the dogs go into the cook pots commanding general for America is Joseph Stilwell a soldier soldier his mission is to train a Chinese army to strike back in India training thousands of Chinese flown back across the hump still will learns to know their true ability but he grows bitter at their government which cannot nourish them he feels they can attack and win if led by honest officers insists that Jang reorganize his army to throw incompetent self in Chongqing this pressure irritates the Generalissimo he knows that victory is guaranteed by efforts of his allies his thoughts are on the aftermath of victory the final struggle for power yet to come a weariness of spirit seeps through his government something fades they wander alien through this anachronistic City the fronts of faraway Americas Flying Tigers guard the skies their background of big-city life cuts them from direct involvement with these peasant people little luxuries little pleasures occupy too many Minds too long exhausted by the years of sacrifice yet nonetheless the prestige of Jung's government grows foreign diplomat scored his favor do him honor in 1943 at Cairo's war time summit conference he sits with Roosevelt and Churchill accepted now as equal of the great consulted on the strategy of global war assured of China's freedom China's greatness in the post-war world from yen ins Tony Hills the Communists watch all this and brewed unrecognized by foreign powers they know their strength is growing not foreign aid but peasant emotions give power and Mao to is hardening like Jang he thinks beyond the war to what must follow twenty years of light and fighting have toughened him to hardship but his memory too was scarred by John by white men Russians and Americans alike his troops weld daily behind enemy lines his self-assuredness freezes to dogma he has been right so often when others made mistakes his truths become for communists a holy script Colonel David Barrett chief of the American military liaison team again on watched all this and recalls they emphasized that they had to give the truth political training because the political consciousness of the peasants who made up the Chinese communist armies was very low so therefore they said we have to give them political training I told them I said in the United States Army we look with this disfavor on giving political training we think we should devote our whole time to military training well he said that is not the case in our army because we consider military training and political training as equally important and one cannot be neglected to do for the other Judah agrees with Mao power is what comes out of a muzzle of a gun but ideas politics must motivate the man behind the gun a concept the Nationalists told me dimly grasp Theodore White recalls how powerful communist motivation could be I went with a group of Chinese nationalists guerrillas who were organizing resistance behind the Japanese lines and there was a young nationalist lieutenant and two horsemen and myself we traveled behind the Japanese lines for oh I'd say two or three days and then the Japanese flushed us and we ran like mad and they chased us all day and by the time we arrived in a mountain village at night the horses were completely worn out saddle gold on their flanks eaving and we were as tired and just as scared and we asked the villages to give us water and fodder for our horses and I heard the young Chinese officer say woman shabadu jun we're of the 8th route army and i said to him look we're nationalists not 8th route army guerillas and he said shut up if we tell him we're nationalists they won't feed our horses or water them it was the first since I'd ever had of the political grip the Communists had acquired on the minds and the hearts of the people in the occupied areas as war wears on American aid increases at John has plead reviewing the new division Stillwell has trained and equipped John hoards these splendid forces they will be useful later still will violently objects he wants to use them now against Japan he has no interest in future civil war Stilwell feels unless John purifies his government not only as he no help in this war but once the war is over surely the Communists will win their quarrel grows from Washington flies a mission to heal the nasty breach under Major General Patrick Hurley an oklahoma politician john sees this as more white man's arrogance a meddling in the politics of china no compromise as possible and still well as relieved of command in 1944 certain American involvement in Asia will be long and tragic the world rejoices as in 1945 the Japanese surrender the guns they hope forever still to sign the document of surrender aboard the Missouri the Allies America England Russia invite Japan's first victim China in their eyes China's only spokesman as john kai-shek who sends nationalist generals to represent his people the communists are absent for Chinese this is but the curtain to enact the climax yet to come and clash with communists to stop this dreadful prospect General Patrick Hurley now named ambassador flies off tiene he urges bow the war is over let there be peace but now and John divided the country politically but unify both rival armies under a central government America will underwrite the deal barely puts a plane at Mao's disposal to explore the proposition that joke King the small arrives on the first plane flight he has ever taken his safety guaranteed by Americans this is his first face-to-face contact with a woman done since the killings and uprisings of 1927 six weeks of negotiation will produce a parent agreement as John plays host to Malba for departure the plans that lurk behind their smiles however deceive all Western eyes for in the field or races on across the land the broken Japanese must sign defeat yield cities Garrison's and guns but which Chinese will take the guns and occupy the cities communist or nationalists the Nationalists with all the transport of America at their disposal and playing their troops to seize the cities of the Yangtze Valley this ease of movement will lead them on to larger appetite dispersion of their forces up from the Yangtze to seize the cities not only of north china but beyond Manchuria with its vital industry and rails no will the Communists sit still together Mao and June like Jang decide the key lies in Manchuria they choose lianbao as field commander to make the – from Yunnan and North China they will strike east and north while Jang is readying troops to move from Yangtze ports and airfields by foot and pack train Lin Biao sets out the Russians have temporarily occupied Manchuria by the surrender terms with Japan communists expect to get from Russians surrendered Japanese equipment and guns and hold the country sign before John arrives the rumble of inevitable clash causes America to replace Hurley with General George Marshall this architect of global victory is sent to save the peace for which so brilliantly he laboured received by John kai-shek Marshall gropes for American solution to the bitter revolutionary surges of a strange Asian nation torn by barbarisms a generational – his Chongqing headquarters he invites a communist delegation led by Joe and lye chief communist negotiator to meet with John kai-shek spokesman Marshall suggests and they agreed to an American answer for China's groping search for order a federal government peacefully permitting the two parties to govern provinces they now hold politically freedom of speech permitted everywhere and disputes resolved by talk not guns in January 1946 both parties celebrate a truce with a handshake no paper truce however can mend the nation ripped apart by 50 years of killing within two months troops are on the move again each side blames the other but a hundred savage skirmishes now flared a full-scale war Manchuria is the cockpit of the struggle the industry Japan has built and left is the greatest prize in China Zhang's American equipped troops seized all major cities to find a hollow triumph the Russian occupiers have looted every factory before withdrawal ripped out sockets show where great machines once stood for Mao the fighting in Manchuria is prelude to the climax of his theories the day when guerrilla bands group into formal armies and shove frontal combat at a weary enemy he fights for more than safety now his ambition seeks to mold all China to his theories I asked Moz Adam what their policy was with regard to freedom of the press and he said they believed in absolute freedom of prescient absolute freedom of speech and it wasn't going to be like Chongqing when they won everybody would have the right to say whatever he felt wouldn't be censorship the way john kai-shek had in chongqing so uh i said you you really mean that and of course we mean it i said do you mean that if you come to power anybody will be able to print anything he wants in a newspaper or publish any newspaper he wants and martha dong said of course he said except for enemies of the people nor did he ever define i was too young to ask him to define what he meant by enemies of the people obviously now it means anybody who disagrees with him in summer 46 john returns his government to Nanking and once again as 17 years before reports the victory of his cause at Sun yat-sen's mausoleum the fighting in the north is only distant thunder in the Yangtze Valley American advisers urge he seize this moment to win the hearts and firm the loyalties of his people by new reforms thus and then King John convenes a Congress to write a modern constitution in one last try to govern China by the order Sun yat-sen has preached but the thrust of all his background is still military his troops must win by force of arms with American arms he feels the Communists can be crushed but his troops dig in to garrison rail junctions cities they have occupied American advisors insist such static defenses major error they say he pins down his best divisions but communist guerrillas will isolate them Queen City of Jong's victorious China is Shanghai restored at last to Chinese rule all foreigners concessions wiped out while battle players in the northern provinces Shanghai seems to thrive the long wars dislocation has filled the streets with hungry refugees and homeless laborers who offer muscle energy for little more than rice to feed them but after 50 years of suffering such sites are almost normal but worries Shanghai lenders most is this their money for slowly then more swiftly through 46 and 47 the cost of distant civil war destroys the value and the meaning of these bundles paper dollars inflation ruins the vital middle class of all the cities the one great source of John's political support novelist Stephen Becker remembers the panic years the inflation was heartbreaking when I got there in August of 1947 the exchange rate was sixty thousand yuan to one American dollar and when I left in September of 1948 it was 20 million yuan to one but people are relatively fixed incomes were just ruined in the summer of 1948 my wife and I had a continental dinner at one of Shanghai's best hotels and the check came to 250 million yuan who lost China to the Reds ignorant men will someday ask but now in 1948 sorrow scrawls its signature clear to many years of death and flight to many dreams betrayed in 50 years of barbarism a gangrene of the Spirit has set in erasing pride and peace whisper the Communists to weary minds peace an end to roaming now submit peace they say accept our mastery and peace land they say to landless peasants refugees join us they promise and the land will be divided both look China slipped their cadres calling meetings to share out the landlords fields which soon they plan to snatch away again in summer 1948 Mao makes his master mold assault by frontal armies in Manchuria guerrilla bands emerged from hiding form up in full divisions equipped with captured tanks artillery and guns Johns Garrison's are isolated by ruptured railways hostile peasants November 1948 Manchuria Falls panic begins among the cutoff nationalist Garrison's in North China surrendering by scores and thousands and full divisions the equipment America has given them falls to the Reds to America her second homeland flies Madame Chiang kai-shek in November 48 to make a last appeal for further help but Harry Truman has had enough reluctantly he tells her American involvement must end and now the Nationalists pursued by RAF as they in years gone by did once pursued the Communists gather its yujo last bastion guarding access to the mighty Yangtze Valley for two full months Jiang's troops fight on in January cutoff they must surrender half a million soldiers lost the Communists pours out his spirit heavy burdened Jang resigns his leadership hoping other men may caught the Communists for better terms on April 1st the Nationalists sent emissaries to Peking to plead with mao zedong but they have passed the point of no return no mercy say the Communists the new Mandate of Heaven requires all nationalists to lay down arms within three weeks three weeks later to the day the Communists uncoil to cross the Yangtze first target is Nanking the hallowed capital of the warming down but in that capital the will to fight has turned to dust no man will stand the ramparts abandoning positions troops trudged away as silent people stand and watch too many warring armies have passed this desolate way to make them want to fight for any faith or any politics no mainland refuge now remains and fleeing nationalists embark what troops they can to cross the ocean for the island of Formosa Shanghai here's the message clearly as foreign businessmen board up their shops go now go quickly for communism marches take what you can but flee in pell-mell haste the Western powers evacuate the city they have built for good and bad alike must leave the businessman come for profit as well as missionaries come to heal must say goodbye as out the NC steams the last of Western influence and farewell to essentially May 27 1940 nine down Shanghai's princely avenues the pleasure boulevards of yesteryear rolls the victorious red tide in six more months all China will submit red star triumphant hoisted over the world's most ancient nation silently the crowds observed their newest conquerors today in 1967 the marble altars of Peking still beseech the will of heaven as always Chinese still gather here to listen to the voices that interpret heavens will for 18 years this man alone has tried to shape their thinking has offered them his universal truths a Dogma changeless as Confucius to freeze their muffled discontent and end their quenchless modern turbulence the image shown his people has been a teacher grandfather benign it all have learned that those who cannot read his lessons will be crushed his aging mind still lusts for permanent strike the theme he preaches to old and young alike is hate we are small militia men fighting US imperialism uncle we must grow up quick and go to liberate Taiwan Taiwan the object of their hate we call Formosa this rocky island 90 miles off the mainland has many meanings to statesman it is the last remaining read out of the gorman dong where john kai-shek with American Arms has reacted army 600,000 strong and dreams reconquest but Jang is pawn to American policy he cannot move these troops or fuel them unless America lets him do so now 80 John kai-shek B speaks for mainland China another threat to Formosa in his flight Jang has carried the ancient Imperial Museum of Peking the treasures of 800 years of Chinese art symbol of another China beauty past it is this echo of the past that has bedeviled Mao who seeks erasure of all past yet how Mao's struggle goes we cannot tell at the American consulate in Hong Kong there are Cascades mountains piles of translations that come in from the Chinese and leaves a sandy gritty gravelly little bits of information with a meaningless because we don't know who does what to who in Peking we don't know how they think or how they make up their mind because no matter how hard we study China we cannot predict such a thing as the great leap forward in 1958 we can't predict such a thing as the red God purge of 1966 as if there were a struggle of sea monsters going on deep deep beneath the surface of our vision and only these bubbles come to the surface to tell us that these are terrible struggles but we don't know what they're struggling about today in total ignorance we strain to know of China as once our ancestors strained to peer across the mysterious wall not knowing myth from fact we know industry grows steel production swollen ten times to twelve million tons a year light industry soaring but what comfort it gives the people we cannot judge we know beyond this wall live people of dazzling historical ability the forefathers of these students first invented paper printing books gunpowder the clock the compass in 1967 they loft rockets in 65 they synthesized insulin in 64 they unlocked the atom secrets from behind the wall rise boastful statistics but we know that China's people hunger have barely survived one of the worst famines in all history that driven by communist cadres peasants work in communes today still beasts of labour as their fathers were within these walls tyranny has tried to reach beyond the body to the inner recesses of the soul I woke at midnight and saw my little brothers smiling I asked him why his money and he said I dreamed of Chairman Mao the purpose of all learning is to fathom what goes on in Chairman Mao's mind this mind holds all the truths that ever were or will be neither age nor place nor class has allowed escape from pounding the chanting of Mao's litany and railroad stations in stores at work even those who built the wall so long ago must be forgotten they have been told no history but Mao's the aging leaders who shared the hills of hiding 40 years ago trekked the long march withstood Japan America the gorman done us now again passed judgment on their Revolution they ride and split within these walls they clash they seek replacement for a chief whose triumphs make him think himself the voice of heaven the you know this is their bomb in ten years time there will be more the nightmare problem of our time shapes clear to reach the minds of mouth' successors with reason before unreasoning bombs take up the dialogue does no good to mourn the past we pass along the road of time which always turning never brings us back to the crossroads mocked again perhaps we should never have disturbed the slumbering civilization of China or rout the wake of itself and reach first perhaps China is too vast to be governed by mercy yet of Chinese mind craves order they must be brought to recognize they are the biggest factor in the world's disorder and we must untangle the madness of their mind the most difficult task in the world is to reach the minds of men who hate you we do not flinch from the immediate tasks to guard our skies defend our friends we cannot flinch from tomorrow's task to reach the mind of China we race today to reach the moon to reach that mind is a task of equal difficulty and far greater urgency you you

49 thoughts on “History of China | CIA Documentary on a Communist Empire | 1967

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  • I'm seeing a lot of people calling this propaganda. Well, does that change its veracity? I honestly can't believe people are going to bat for Maoist totalitarianism. But its from the CIA so I guess it must be false. This comment section is dominated by fanatical Marxists, Chinese who haven't been educated on the crimes of their government, and anti-American edgelords and contrarians.

  • social injustice brought out cries for reform
    then it escalates to revolution

    US should watch out for this pattern.
    It wouldn't be long before a call for revolution….

  • watched the first half minute and just saw biases. Chinese ppl were not taught to hate nor was its growing power a threat to peace or light. It may not be democratic nor glorious but the narrator putting it like a statement like facts rather than acknowledging his capitalist opinion/bias is simply wrong and misleading

  • Why is it a quick Asian telling the story of China second of all why are we even listening to the CIA we all know that America suppresses all the other countries erase history moves around to their believes and believes that they they understand their enemies which if you haven't enemies because you don't have the same ideals you don't see the things the same way so this documentary is complete nonsense sorry for whoever posted it

  • Even though so many people hold a wrong picture of Mao, Mao is still Mao. The man who found modern China, gave every Chineses equality and land, made nuclear weapons successfully developed, which prevented from being invaded in the future. This man made China what it is today, one of the most powerful nation in the whole world and history.

  • 中国变成共产主义国家完全是因为西方国家压迫太狠了,如果能活下去睡去革命,所以感谢西方国家的侵略

  • The cultural revolution chinese are sick and insane. They eat human flesh and rape and murder Innocents. These people are the Sons of serpent – as they call themselves the descendents of the red dragon.

  • “Chinese bread hate”, “we must look back” yeah sure lets look back on the fact that cia bread its hate in Indonesia when it supported a regime that killed 600,000-2,000,000 people.

  • This is the time when America were best at propaganda…had US gave more support to the nationalist party during their civil war or before civil war during Japanese invasion, China today won’t be communist.

  • Why China is not trusted by the free world? Who is responsible for China's isolation? I think it has nothing to do with racism as the Japanese, Taiwanese, South Koreans, and Singaporeans were also East Asians they are trusted  by the whole world. Why China always assumes the rest of the world as its enemy?

  • The Jews of Russia , and elsewhere , installed Chairman Mao. Mao’s secret advisors were all Jewish. The people responsible for importing opium were the Rothschilds and Sassoon’s. President Roosevelt’s Family were also heavily involved and in the shipping of opium into China , that’s how they made their fortune.

  • I like old school docs even if the facts have changed – the presentation and music has more class then todays special effects crap

  • The Chinese are a formidable foe. We must never under estimate them. They are hive minds like insects. We Westerners can never understand them. Their motives are completely different from the West.

  • Chang Kai Chek was a high ranking Green. I remember when the Greens and Reds were still powerful in the early 1960's.

  • Do not underestimate the threat and damage caused by Communist policy. Most Southeast Asian countries were somewhat familiar with Communist propaganda.

    For in the middle of 20th century after world war 2, there were Communist insurrections in Thailand, Burma, British Malaya(Malaysia), Dutch lndies (Indonesia),the Philippines, and the French Indochina ( Cambodia, Laos & Vietnam). The Communist insurgents had created widespread destruction of properties, and went on looting, terrorising, killing people and assassinating prominent leaders. They had even attacked police stations. They were hard benting on destroying social unity and creating unrest and lawlessness.
    In what was British Malaya (Malaysia), my biological grandfather was a prominent leader that spoke out against the Communist party of Malaya and asked them to leave Malaya and go back to China. He was the supporter of creating the world first National ID card scheme to counter security issue, so everyone could be identified. For that, he was assassinated. So were more than 300 leaders.

    When the British High Commissioner was assassinated, the British sent troop to hunt the Communists. They were driven out of Malaya, and were active in Malaysia-Thai border until 1980s. They surrendered and were disarmed. Some of them were allowed to return to Malaysia but most of them were forced to live in exile because a lot of families whose had someone killed by them, would not forgive them. The leader of the Communist party of Malaya, Chin Peng died in exile. Apparently a lot of people did NOT want him in Malaysia.

    We all know what a communist is and what a communist wants. I believe we will NOT have peace in this world coexisting with Communists .Their way of managing the society imbalances were to use brainwashing propaganda and violence. Since the elites are likely to pose opposition to their policy, they would be the first group to be eradicated by force. This is one of the reasons why I disagree with Communist values.

    Now they are trying to achieve their political ideal by using another mean: economics, but they have not never ever renounced the classless communist violent struggle. When things go bad, they probably pick on the wealthy people in China, they eradicate them and divided up properties to appease the poor agitated mass, like what they had done to the landlords during the Cultural revolution. Their hands are dirty and full of blood.

  • It's 2018 now. As I watch this 1967 documentary, I am starting to realize why the US is using "freedom of navigation" as an excuse to challenge China in the South China Sea. They(US, Western powers and Japan) once humbled the Chinese as this documentary mentioned and they are now attempting a second try. I hope they don't succeed. The Chinese leadership knows the ploy being used by the US and its cohorts to attempt to once again let China be humbled and be subservient to them. Time has changed and the US knows this as it is desperately trying to bring back its old imperialistic glory.

  • So just as a heads up this is an extremely biased doc that is more of a propaganda film denouncing communism.

  • Mao says he will split land from the land owners to the people but how? How can you share land to 700 million people back then?

  • Just a fa-ital dead monster to this world, particularly Chinese and nearby countries!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Our salute to Chairman Mao, the true leader of Chinese people, one of the greatest man in the human history.   Long live the thought of Mao!

  • Any COUNTRIES of any POLITICAL SYSTEMS: COMMUNIST, or the so called DEMOCRACY or DEMONCRAZY do not matter as long as its people are HAPPY with the REAL great improvement in their STANDARD OF LIVING, with TRUE PUBLIC SECURITY,  not like in the public places of Uncle Sam of America, the people have all the FREEDOM including having fire arms. It is really UNSAFE to be in any public places in Uncle Sam of America.Modern CHINA has GREAT PROGRESS in its ECONOMY, TECHNOLOGY and MILITARY with well trained troops using advance weapons and equipment. The people are able to go abroad as TOURISTS, STUDENTS, PROFESSIONALS and INVESTORS. ASK the BEAST JAP troops with the HELP of the Yankee troops of the World Supperpowerto attack CHINA again like in the 1930s to 1940s.The CHINESE PLA forces  like to feel HOW  POWERFUL are these beasts of the EAST.

  • Wait wait "Taught to hate" American documentary on Chinese people? Hmmm, sounds awfully familiar. America are you sure you're not being hypocritical?

  • I researched Christian Warlord Feng. He was devout Methodist, baptized in 1914. He took baptism seriously and never did that ridiculous act of using a water hose to baptize any of his troops which were voluntary. He was typical Methodist in beliefs except he was aligned to a form of socialism. He spent time in California and was murdered with his daughter on boat trip to Russia.

  • We should use a moment of silence to remember 40M lives taken by Devil Mao, instead of glorifying his brutality.

  • Why do they make China to be the bad guy? It was Britain who first smuggled opium through Chinese borders without the country's consent. The opium ruined people, their health, their lives. It was a true invasion, all the Chinese could do was retaliate in any way they knew or were capable of. And Empress Dowager Cixi is always presented so negatively. She was a woman who most of the time had to do what she had to do according to constraining customs and traditions that bend rulers ever so tightly. Yes, it was a failing system, but it should not be blamed on one woman who happened to rule at a most tense time what was also the fault of so many generations of rulers that came before her.

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