How DOES Boris Johnson’s deal differ from Theresa May’s?


His critics said the negotiation was a ‘sham’, insisting that the EU would never re-open Theresa May’s deal But yesterday, 85 days after entering Downing Street, Boris Johnson announced he had secured a ‘real Brexit’ agreement that would allow the UK to take control of its money, borders and laws – and EU chief negotiator Michel Barnier admitted that the backstop had been ‘abandoned’ Much of the agreement remains from Theresa May’s original blueprint that she presented to the House of Commons three times only to have it roundly rejected But in critical areas it is different. Here JACK DOYLE examines the small print to see where Mr Johnson has won new concessions and where he’s had to compromise Much of Mr Johnson’s agreement remains from Theresa May’s original blueprint that she presented to the House of Commons three times only to have it roundly rejected (Mr Johnson is pictured left in Brussels yesterday, and Mrs May is pictured right earlier this week) What’s the sameFree movement: Like Mrs May’s deal, the agreement states unequivocally that freedom of movement will end after Brexit – a key demand of the Leave campaign Home Secretary Priti Patel has already announced plans for a new ‘points-based’ immigration system based on the needs of industry Money: The calculation of the UK’s ‘divorce bill’ hasn’t changed. It will be around £38billion – made up of our share of EU spending commitments and a payment for the two-year ‘transition’ RELATED ARTICLES Previous 1 2 Next How Boris Johnson CAN win over Westminster: PM starts 36 DUP digs in: Unionists accuse Boris Johnson of ‘driving. Jeremy Corbyn rejects PM’s ‘sell-out deal’… 26 minutes Share this article Share Citizens’ Rights: Both sides agree to protect each other’s foreign nationals: Britons living in the EU and EU nationals living in the UK, whose rights will be preserved in perpetuity Security: The deal envisages close defence and security and cooperation in future including the UK taking part in European defence projects Agriculture and fishing: The UK will leave the Common Agricultural Policy and the Common Fisheries Policy, and regain control over its territorial waters Transition: Like Mrs May, Boris Johnson has agreed a transition period until the end of 2020 – with an optional, one-off extension of up to two years – during which little will change This will allow time for talks on the future trading relationship. Dominic Cummings looks around a corner holding up his iPhone, ahead of the opening sessions of the European Council summit at EU headquarters in Brussels It took two personal phone calls at 9 30am and 11am from Boris Johnson to European Commission chief Jean-Claude Juncker to agree a special ‘derogation’ for sanitary productsWhat’s newCustoms Northern Ireland will stay part of the UK’s customs territory and benefit from any UK trade deals Customs checks on goods crossing between Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Analysis: In an attempt, to keep the Northern Irish border with the Republic open, and to preserve EU-UK trade, Mrs May agreed to a backstop that would have put the whole of the UK in a customs union with the EU The consequence was to massively constrain the scope for post-Brexit trade deals with the rest of the world But Brexiteers like Mr Johnson argued it was an ‘instrument of our own incarceration’ that would have tied the UK to EU rules without a say What replaces it is a fudge, but one which allows the UK to set its own tariffs, opening the door to new trade deals Legally, Northern Ireland remains in the UK’s customs territory and will benefit from any lower tariffs on imports agreed in new trade deals – and allowing Mr Johnson to say the country is leaving ‘as one United Kingdom’ But in practice, Northern Ireland will be part of the EU’s customs border, with different tariffs paid depending on the destination Customs checks, performed by the UK authorities, will take place in port.Verdict: A pragmatic solution that liberates the UK from the original backstop and allows for trade deals Single marketNorthern Ireland to stay aligned to EU rules on goods and agricultureAnalysis: Like the original backstop, Mr Johnson’s deal keeps Northern Ireland in effect inside the single market when it comes to a raft of agricultural and industrial goods regulations  Much of the 64 pages of the new protocol is made up of lists of the EU regulations – on cars, medicine and food, that Northern Ireland will have to follow after Brexit  This was Mr Johnson’s first major concession, made early in September, and done with the DUP’s agreement Without such an arrangement, the problem of keeping open a border where cows can stand astride the line – become insurmountable Verdict: A necessary compromise. British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, center, is greeted by Luxembourg’s Prime Minister Xavier Bettel, center left, during a round table meeting at an EU summit in Brussels on Thursday Images of Mr Johnson on Thursday were in stark contrast to Mrs May at an EU summit in 2016 (pictured)  May appeared to have been given the cold shoulder by fellow leaders at the event in BrusselsVATNorthern Ireland to follow EU VAT rulesAnalysis: The UK will enforce the rules and collect the taxes, but after Brexit Northern Ireland will have to accept EU rules on VAT In theory that would make it impossible for Northern Ireland to cut VAT rates to below EU minimums, unlike the rest of the UK However there is one exemption, carved out by Mr Johnson at the last minute: an opt out for sanitary products to allow him to reduce VAT rates to zero, from five per cent now, to fulfil a pledge made during the referendum campaign Verdict: A win on sanitary products, but more EU alignment for Northern Ireland.ConsentA vote every four years for StormontAnalysis: A major objection raised by critics of the ‘anti-democratic’ backstop was that there was no way out But Mr Johnson’s deal allows for degree of democratic oversight. A new ‘consent mechanism’ will give the Northern Ireland Assembly the chance to vote on the new customs and single market rules four years after the end of transition period, which is due to conclude at the end of next year If the new regime is approved by a simple majority of assembly members then another vote would take place every four years thereafter If there was cross community support – approval from a majority of both unionist and nationalist members – there would not be another vote for eight years If at any point the assembly voted down the new regime, there would be a two-year buffer period before the rules lapsed What the DUP wanted was a vote in advance of the rules coming into force, with majorities required on both sides Verdict: A significant concession from the EU that allows for a way out of the backstop, but not enough for the DUP

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