Symposium on Private Military Security Companies Part 1


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THIS IS A TEST FOR THE CAPTIONER. TEST, ONE, TWO. [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY] [CAPTIONER STANDING BY]>>CAN YOU HEAR ME OKAY. ALL RIGHT, GOOD MORNING AND WELCOME TO GEORGIA, WHICH IS, AS I SAID LAST NIGHT, IS THE HOME OF THE MOUNTAIN PHASE OF THE ARMY’S RANGER SCHOOL WHICH IS UP IN THE MOUNTAINS. YOU CAN ACTUALLY SEE THEM OUT THESE WINDOWS ON A NICE DAY. AND ALSO IT’S THE SITE OF THE FIRST MAJOR GOLD RUSH IN THE UNITED STATES. AND WITH ALL OF THE RAIN THAT WE’VE HAD, IT USUALLY WASHES OFF THE DIRT. YOU CAN GO TO THE PARKING LOT AND PICK UP GOLD NUGGETS AND STUFF. YOU CAN DO THAT AT LUNCHTIME, MAYBE, AND GET RICH. ALSO, WELCOME TO THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH GEORGIA, WE’RE A REGIONAL MULTI-CAMPUS INSTITUTION. THIS IS ONE OF THE FIVE CAMPUSES IN OUR FOOTPRINT HERE IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA. WR THE SENIOR MILITARY COLLEGE, THE OTHER SENIOR MILITARY COLLEGES ARE THE CITADEL, VMI, VIRGINIA TECH, NORWICH, AND US. WE PROVIDE A CULTURE OF ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE IN A STUDENT-FOCUSED ENVIRONMENT THAT INCLUDES QUALITY EDUCATION, SERVICE, INQUIRY, AND CREATIVITY. THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH A BROAD CEACSS THROUGH COMPREHENSIVE ACADEMIC AND CO-CURRICULAR PROGRAMS. CO-CURRICULAR PROGRAMS SUCH AS THIS, THAT DEVELOP OUR STUDENTS INTO LEADERS FOR A DIVERSE AND GLOBAL SOCIETY, WE’RE A UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF GEORGIA, A LEADERSHIP INSTITUTION, AND WE’RE THE MILITARY COLLEGE OF GEORGIA. JOINING US IN THIS SYMPOSIUM ARE 16 INTERNATIONAL CADETS FROM COUNTRIES WITH WHOM WE ARE PARTNERED WITH OR WITH WHOM WE ARE FRIENDS AND THEY’RE HERE ENJOYING CADET INTERNATIONAL WEEK WHICH WE ARE HOSTING AND THEY ARE EMBEDDED IN OUR CORPS OF CADETS THIS WEEK. AS ONE OF ONLY SIX SENIOR MILITARY COLLEGES IN THE COUNTRY, WE PRODUCE 220 OFFICERS FOR THE UNITED STATES ARMY, FOR THE ARMY RESERVE, AND FOR THE GEORGIA ARMY NATIONAL GUARD IN THE LAST TWO YEARS. WE’RE ALSO DESIGNATED AS A NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND, DEFENSE, NATIONAL CENTER OF EXCELLENCE IN CYBER DEFENSE EDUCATION. AND WE’RE ONLY ONE OF SEVEN UNIVERSITIES IN GEORGIA WITH THAT RECOGNITION. WE’RE ALSO A NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY AND U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CENTER, OF ACADEMIC SPECIALISTS IN GEOSPATIAL SCIENCE. BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION, I’M KEITH ANTONIO. I’LL BE YOUR EMCEE FOR THE NEXT DAY AND A HALF. A GRADUATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT IN 19 1, I’M A PRODUCT OF THE ARMY ROTC PROGRAM THERE. COMMISSIONED AS AN INFANTRY OFFICER AND SERVED IN THE INFANTRY FOR 20 YEARS. I RETIRED A MONTH BEFORE 9/11 HAPPENED AND I STARTED WORKING HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH GEORGIA IN 2003. WITH THE FOUNDING AT THE INSTITUTE OF LEADERSHIP AND STRATEGIC STUDIES WHICH IS A RELATIVELY NEW INSTITUTE HERE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH GEORGIA WHICH IS ONLY 3 YEARS OLD. THE UNIVERSITY INSTITUTED A PROGRAM OF ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM. THEY ADDRESS CURRENT SECURITY-RELATED ISSUES. LAST YEAR, OUR THEME WAS CYBER. THIS YEAR AS YOU KNOW, OUR THEME IS LEADERSHIP IN A COMPLEX WORLD, PRIVATE MILITARY SECURITY COMPANIES INFLUENCE IN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND FOREIGN POLICY. OUR CO-HOSTS ARE THE ARMY WAR COLLEGE STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE. AND OUR COLLEGE OF ARTS AND LETTERS AND THROUGH THIS SYMPOSIUM, WE INTEND TO CONTRIBUTION TO THE SCHOLARLY DISCUSSION OF SECURITY IN STRATEGIC ISSUES IN THIS INCREASINGLY COMPLEX DOMAIN. AND TO DO SO, I THINK WE HAD 130 PEOPLE REGISTERED. THERE WILL BE STUDENTS AND OTHER FACULTY AND STAFF FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH GEORGIA WHO WILL COME IN AND OUT FOR CERTAIN PRESENTATIONS AND SPEAKERS. WE HAVE 13 DIFFERENT COUNTRIES REPRESENTED HERE. SIX SPEAKERS. WE HAVE 13 PANELISTS AND THREE PANEL MODERATORS. YOU SHOULD EACH HAVE A SYMPOSIUM PROGRAM AND YOU’LL FIND IN A SCHEDULE OF THE SYMPOSIUM IN YOUR PROGRAM ALONG WITH BIOGRAPHIES AND INFORMATION ABOUT OUR PANELISTS, OUR SPEAKERS, AND OUR MODERATORS. WI-FI, IF YOU WANT FREE WI-FI ACCESS, THEN THE LOG-IN IS SMALL LETTERS UINN G2018 AND THE PASS WORD IS WELCOME 13! W. G2018 AND THE PASS WORD IS WELCOME 13! W. G2018 AND THE PASS WORD IS WELCOME 13! W. G2018 AND THE PASS WORD IS WELCOME 13! W.N G2018 AND THE PASS WORD IS WELCOME 13! W.G2018 AND THE PASS WORD IS WELCOME 13! W.13!W. LAST YEAR WE PUBLISHED A MONOGRAPH ON OUR PROCEEDINGS FROM OUR CYBER SYMPOSIUM. WE PLAN ON DOING THE SAME THING THIS YEAR. SO I PLAN ON PUBLISHING THE PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS AS A CONFERENCE MONOGRAPH, AND AFTER THE SYMPOSIUM, WE’LL ALLOW TIMES FOR PRESENTERS TO REVISE PAPERS AND SUBMIT ARTICLES, AND ONCE WE RECEIVE THOSE, WE’LL ORGANIZE THEM IN A COLLECTION, WE’LL DO SOME PEER REVIEW WITH THOSE, AND THEN AFTER THAT, WE WILL EDIT OR PUBLISH A MONOGRAPH FOR THIS THING IN THE FORM OF A BOOK AND WE’LL ALSO PUT THE BOOK ON-LINE. BOOKS PENNED BY SPEAKERS WILL BE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN THE BACK OF THE ROOM. RIGHT BACK THERE DURING BREAKS. MAKE AN EFFORT, PLEASE, ALSO TO VISIT THE POSTER SESSION. SO, IN THE ROOM TO YOUR LEFT IS COFFEE, JUICE, WATER, AND TEA AND STUFF LIKE THAT. SORT OF A BREAK ROOM. BUT ALSO THE — THE POSTERS THAT SOME OF OUR INTERNATIONAL FRIENDS, CADETS, BOUGHT TO THE SYMPOSIUM WILL BE IN THERE, INTERNATIONAL CADETS WHO HAVE POSTERS, WE’D LIKE YOU TO BE NEAR YOUR POSTERS DURING THE BREAKS SO THAT YOU CAN PRESENT YOUR POSTERS TO THOSE ATTENDEES WHO ARE INTERESTED. I’D LIKE TO ALSO REMIND EVERYONE THAT TONIGHT WE HAVE A SOCIAL AND THE DRESS WILL BE VERY CASUAL AT THE SMITH HOUSE AT 6:30 P.M., 1830 TONIGHT. AND AGAIN, SPEAKERS ARE GOING TO HAVE BOOKS THERE FOR SALE AND THEY’LL BE AVAILABLE TO AUTOGRAPH THEM. WE’LL HAVE HEAVY HORS D’OEUVRES AND AN OPEN BAR. IF YOU’RE IN THE SMITH HOUSE AND YOU’RE CHECKING OUT TOMORROW MORNING, YOU HAVE TO CLEAR OUT YOUR ROOM, THE SMITH HOUSE DOES HAVE STORAGE CAPACITY FOR YOUR BAGGAGE FOR THE REST OF THE DAY TOMORROW. I THINK EVERYBODY KNOW WHERE IS THE BATHROOMS ARE, THEY’RE WELL MARKED OUTSIDE OF THE ROOMS HERE. THERE IS NO SMOKING ON CAMPUS. IF YOU HAVE ANY ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS OR QUESTIONS, MELISSA GRIZZLE WHO IS WAS AT THE REGISTRATION TABLE CAN — YOU CAN ASK HER FOR HELP AND SHE’LL CERTAINLY HELP IF WE CAN. AT THIS TIME, I’D LIKE TO INTRODUCE DR. BILLY ROSE, A RETIRED COLONEL AND OUR SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY FOR LEADERSHIP AND GLOBAL ENGAGEMENT. HE’S ALSO THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR FOR THE INSTITUTE OF LEADERSHIP AND STRATEGIC STUDIES. HE RETIRED FROM THE ARMY IN 2005 AFTER 30 YEARS AS AN INFANTRY OFFICER. AND HIS LAST ACTIVE DUTY POSITION HERE WAS THE PROFESSOR OF MILITARY SCIENCE FOR OUR CORPS OF CADETS HERE AT THE UNIVSIERTY. HE’S A GRADUATE OF MISSISSIPPI STATE, THE ARMY WAR COLLEGE HAS A MASTER’S DEGREE IN EDUCATION FROM LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY, AND A DOCTORATE IN HIGHER EDUCATION FROM VANDERBILT. DR. WELLES?>>THIS IS GOING TO BE BRIEF. YOU’VE BEEN WELCOMED, WHAT, AT LEAST TWICE ALREADY. AND I’M HERE TO WELCOME YOU A THIRD TIME. WE’RE VERY HAPPY THAT YOU’RE HERE. THE — THIS IS INTENDED TO BE A COLLABORATIVE DISCUSSION. SOME OF THESE ISSUES ARE CHALLENGING. AND WE WANT TO GET TO THEM. AND WAY WANT — WE WANT TO SEE IF WE CAN FIND SOME SOLUTIONS. AND WE HAVE PEOPLE REPRESENTING EVERY ASPECT OF PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES THAT IS BY INTENT AS LONG AS THE DIALOGUE IS CIVIL AND WE’LL MAKE SURE IT IS ONE WAY OR THE OTHER. I WOULD ENCOURAGE YOU TO NETWORK AMONG YOUR PEERS HERE, BECAUSE THAT’S ONE OF THE VALUES OF HAVING THIS KIND OF THING. THE LINKAGES THAT CAN BE ESTABLISHED AND THE FRIENDSHIPS AS WELL. THE ONE THING I WOULD ASK YOU TO THINK ABOUT IS NEXT YEAR’S TOPIC. WE HAVE A STRATEGY THAT WE DON’T PICK THE ORDINARY. AND SO THIS IS A — THIS IS AN ISSUE THAT A LOT OF PEOPLE DON’T LIKE TO HAVE AN OPEN DISCUSSION ABOUT. BUT WE NEED TO TAKE A LOOK AT IT AND SEE WHAT WE CAN DO. SO NEXT YEAR, WE HAVEN’T DECIDED ON WHAT THE TOPIC IS. WE’RE GOING TO HAVE CONVERSATIONS WITH OUR WAR COLLEGE FRIENDS AFTER THE SYMPOSIUM IS OVER TO KIND OF DISCUSS SOME OPTIONS, BUT IF YOU HAVE IDEAS, SHARE THEM WITH SOME OF THE STAFF SO WE CAN BRING THEM TO THE TABLE. I WILL TELL YOU THAT WE HAVE AN ISSUE RIGHT NOW. SO WE’RE GOING TO GO QUICKLY AND — I HAD SOME PREPARED REMARKS, BUT I THINK KEITH COVERED EVERYTHING QUITE WELL. BUT THERE’S A THUNDERSTORM ON THE OTHER END, YOU KNOW, WITH E EBEINN BARLOW. THE PROBLEM MAY BE THAT WE GET CUT OFF. SO WE WANT TO PROCEED AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE. THANK YOU, WE’RE HAPPY YOU’RE HERE. USE THE OPPORTUNITY TO GET IN CONTACT WITH FOLKS. YOU’LL HAVE MORE OPPORTUNITY THIS EVENING WITH THE OPEN BAR. GLAD YOU’RE HERE. HOPE TO TALK TO SOME OF YOU DURING THE BREAKS. . >>GOOD MORNING. IT’S MY PRIVILEGE AND HONOR TO INTRODUCE A GOOD FRIEND, EEBEN BARLOW. HE’S PIPING IN FROM SOUTH AFRICA, HE’S SEVEN HOURS AHEAD OF US. I’M HOPEFUL HE CAN HEAR VERY WELL, HE CAN SEE US AS WELL AND HE’LL BE OPEN FOR Q&A, WHICH I CAN RELAY TO HIM. THERE’S ONLY ONE SPEAKER ON THAT SIDE. SO IF THERE’S ANY QUESTIONS FROM THIS SIDE, I’LL MOVE OVER THERE AND REPEAT THE QUESTION AND EEBEN CAN RESPOND. BORN IN ZAMBIA AND IN BOTSWANA AND CAM DOUMBIA, HE’S USED AS AN OFFICER IN CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL AND COVERT UNITS OF THE SOUTHED AFRICAN DEFENSE FORCE. HAVING BEEN FOUNDED TO BE MILITARY EXPEDIATE, HE FOUNDED OUTCOMES. IT FOCUSED ON ADVICE, TRAINING AND MENTORING TO UNDER SIEGE AFRICAN AND OTHER ARMED FORCES AND THEIR GOVERNMENTS. DESPITE THE WEAPONIZED MEDIA AND FALSE INTELLIGENCE REPORTS, THE COMPANY HONORED THE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTAL IN ENDING LONG STANDING CONFLICTS IN ANGOLA AND SIERRA LEONE WHERE HE HELD THE RANK AND PRIVILEGES OF A MAJOR GENERAL. THE COMPANY ALSO CONDUCTED SEVERAL SUCCESSFUL BUT UNDISCLOSED OPERATIONS FOR AFRICAN GOVERNMENTS. HE FURTHER MORE CONDUCTED SEVERAL HIGH RISK HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL MISSIONS BEYOND AFRICA UPON LEADING EXECUTIVE OUTCOMES, HE ACTED AS AN INDEPENDENT SECURITY ADVISOR TO SEVERAL AFRICAN GOVERNMENTS. IN 2009, HE WAS APPROACHED TO CHAIR STTEP INTERNATIONAL LIMITED. IT WAS INSTRUMENTAL IN MENTORING THE UGANDAN PEOPLE’S DEFENSE FORCE SPECIAL OPERATIONS GROUP. DESPITE BEING HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL IN THE FIGHT AGAINST THE LORD’S RESISTANCE ARMY, THE UPDF WAS FORCED THROUGH FOREIGN PRESSURE TO TERMINATE STTEP’S CONTRACT. HE WAS INSTRUMENTAL IN INSTITUTING THE GERMAN ARMY WITH THE TRAINING AND MENTORING OF THE MOBILE STRIKE FORCE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST BOCA HARAN AND LAID THE FIRST ASSAULT ON MARFA IN NORTHEASTERN NIGERIA. STTEP’S CONTRACT WAS TERMINATED DUE TO FOREIGN PRESSURE ON THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT. HE SERVED AS THE SPECIAL OPERATIONS GROUP COMMANDER FOR SEVERAL AFRICAN ARMED FORCES. HE WAS A CONTRIBUTING EDITOR TO THE COUNTERTERRORIST MAGAZINE AND THE AUTHOR OF TWO BESTSELLING BOOKS. HE SPEAKS OF DOMESTIC, REGIONAL, AND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES AND LECTURES AT NUMEROUS AFRICAN AND FOREIGN UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES ON CONFLICT AND WAR IN AFRICA. OVER TO YOU, EEBEN.>>THANK YOU, CAN EVERYONE HEAR ME?>>VERY WELL.>>WELL, GOOD MORNING TO YOU. IT’S AFTERNOON OVER HERE IN AFRICA. THANK YOU VERY MUCH. THANK YOU FOR GIVING ME THE OPPORTUNITY TO DISCUSS WHAT I WAS REQUESTED TO TALK ABOUT, REALLY, THE BOKAN HARAN BASE STUDY. PERSONALLY I GIVE A PERSONAL VIEW AND OPINION OF IT. BUT ALSO, I THINK THERE MIGHT BE SOME LESSONS IN THIS TO BE LEARNED OH IN TERMS OF HOW IT COULD IMPACT ON SECURITY AND FOREIGN POLICY IN PARTICULAR. I WOULD LIKE THOUGH START OFF BY SAYING THAT I’M AN AFRICAN. AND HAVING WITNESSED CONFLICTS THROUGHOUT THE CONTINENT, I THINK I’M SEMIQUALIFIED TO TALK ABOUT AFRICAN CONFLICTS. I’M ALSO VERY CRITICAL OF PRIVATE MILITARY SECURITY ENGAGEMENTS IN AFRICA AS THE SUCCESSORS ARE OFTEN VERY LIMITED AND I ASK MYSELF THE QUESTION, WHY IS THIS? BUT BEING CRITICAL DOESN’T NECESSARILY MAKE ME ANTI-WEST OR ANTI-EAST, BUT I AM PRO AFRICA AND I BELIEVE EVERYTHING THAT HAPPENS NORTH OF OUR BOARDERS EVENTUALLY FLIES SOUTH TO US HERE. BUT I’VE COME TO THE OPINION THAT MANY COMPANIES AND NGOs VIEW CONFLICT REALLY AS A BUSINESS MODEL AND THEY MUST BE SUSTAINED FOR ECONOMIC AND INFLUENCE PURPOSES LET ME JUST PREFACE WHAT I’M GOING BE TALKING ABOUT, AND THAT IS BOKA HARAN IN NIGERIA. SO, EDDIE, IF YOU WOULDN’T MIND FLIPPING TO THE NEXT SLIDE, PLEASE? OKAY, I’M DONE WITH THAT ONE. THE NEXT ONE, GREAT. HERE WE SEE NIGERIA ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT. IT’S REALLY JUST A VERY SMALL PART OF AFRICA. NEXT? HOWEVER, IT’S 1 OF 54 AFRICAN COUNTRIES, 300 TRIBES AND 186 MILLION PEOPLE, SEVERAL RELIGIONS, AND IT’S THE WORLD’S 32nd LARGEST COUNTRY YET IT’S AFRICA’S LARGEST ECONOMY. A VERY VARIED LANDSCAPE, OBVIOUSLY. AND TROPICAL FOREST IN THE SOUTH AND REALLY IN NORTHERN NIGERIA. WOULD YOU SKIP THIS? JUST A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF BOKA HARAN. YOU KNOW IT ORIGINATED IN NIGERIA IN 2002 AND THE TERM IMPLIED A WASTED EDUCATION. IT’S A RADICALIST ISLAMIC SECT. WHAT WHAT REALLY HAPPENED — WHAT GAVE IMPETUS TO BOCA HARAN IS THEY RETURNED FROM LIBYA. THEY EXPERIENCED WARFARE, THEY WERE TRAINED AND OFTEN EQUIPPED AND A LOT OF THIS WE CONSIDERED TO BE AN UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCE OF THE COLLAPSE OF LIBYA. IT INCREASED THE CAMPAIGN IN NORTHEAST NIGERIA AND RECENTLY ALIGNED THEMSELVES WITH ISIL, ISIS, WHATEVER YOU WANT TO CALL IT AND RENAMED ITSELF THE IS ISLAMIST STATE OF WEST AFRICA. THEY’RE IN CHAD AND CAMEROON AND ELSEWHERE AND THEY’RE CONSIDERED ONE OF THE FOREMOST ANTI-TERRORIST GROUPS IN THE WORLD. HOWEVER, I DON’T KNOW IF THAT’S REALLY TRUE. BUT I DO KNOW IN AFRICA THEY’RE A VERY VIOLENT AND VICIOUS GROUP. AND THIS HAS RESULTED IN THE NIGERIAN ARMY IN PARTICULAR COMING UNDER SEVERE PRESSURE FROM THIS GROUP IN NIGERIA ITSELF. THIS MORNING, MORE THAN 16 PEOPLE WERE KILLED BY BOCA HARAN IN BORNER STATE AND CURRENTLY A LOT MORE ARE MISSING, WE DON’T KNOW HOW MANY. WHAT HAS BEEN A CONCERN IS THAT THE NIGERIAN ARMY HAS BEEN BENEFICIARIES OF FOREIGN TRAINING FOR SEVERAL YEARS. BUT WHEN ONE REALLY PEELS BACK THE TRAINING, A LOT IS WINDOW DRESSING TRAINING. THE DISCIPLINE IS POOR AND SO IS THE STANDARD OF TRAINING. AND I BELIEVE THIS IS DUE TO WHAT WE CONSIDER TO BE DOCKETRIAL BLINDERS AS WELL AS BATTLEFIELD FAILURES BECAUSE BOCA HARAN HAS OUTMANEUVERED THE NIGERIAN ARMY ON NUMEROUS OCCASIONS AND WE WITNESSED THE SAME THING HAPPENING IN OTHER AFRICAN COUNTRIES WHERE ANTI-GOVERNMENT FORCES GET SOME RESULTS, THE NATIONAL ARMIES ARE PUT UNDER PRESSURE. AND I FOR ONE HAVE TO ASK THE QUESTION WHY. GO TO THE NEXT ONE, EDDIE? WE WERE APPROACHED ON A THREE-MONTH CONTRACT TO LAUNCH A RESCUE MISSION TO RELEASE 300 PLUS GIRLS WHO WERE KIDNAPPED IN 2014. WE WERE GIVEN A VERY LARGE GROUP OF NIGERIAN GROUPS TO SELECT BECAUSE AS THIS WAS GOING TO BE A HOSTAGE RESCUE MISSION WHICH WE HAD DONE BEFORE, WE KNOW THAT THE CAN HAVE A CERTAIN SKILL LEVEL AND MINDSET. ALL OF THESE GROUPS WERE FOREIGN TRAINED AND A MAJORITY CAME FROM THE ARMY OF NIGERIA ARMY SPECIAL FORCES. I HAVE TO BE CRITICAL AGAIN. BEING CRITICAL DOESN’T MEAN I’M ATTACKING ANYONE. I THINK THE PROBLEMS STEM FROM WHAT I PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED, BUT WE WERE FORCED TO STOP SELECTION AFTER DAY THREE. BECAUSE BY THEN, WE WHITTLED DOWN THE 750 MEN WE HAD TO ABOUT 120. AND THE STANDARD OF TRAINING WE WITNESSED WAS INCREDIBLY POOR. AND AGAIN WE ASKED THIS QUESTION, WHY IS THE TRAINING SO POOR? WHY IS THIS EMPTY ROOM TRAINING? WHY IS A DOCTRINE INAPPROPRIATE THAT THEY’RE TRYING TO IMPLEMENT? AND THE GTPs ARE UNSUITED TO THE TERRAIN AND THE ENEMY THEY HAVE TO GO. SO WE HAD TO REDEVELOP A NEW DOCTRINE AND BASICALLY FOR A HOSTAGE RESCUE, THERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS TO ATTEMPT IT AND WE WANTED TO RESCUE THESE GIRLS. SO THAT’S HOW WE STARTED DEVELOPING A DOCTRINE. SO WE HAD TO START BY COMBINING BASIC TRAINING AND SPECIALIST TRAINING IN A VERY LIMITED PERIOD OF TIME. NEXT ONE, PLEASE? AFTER ABOUT WEEK NUMBER FIVE, OUR TRAINING MISSION CHANGED. WE’RE TOLD THAT 70s INFANTRY DIVISION IS ABOUT TO BE OVERRUN BY BOKO HAREM AND WE WERE TO INTERVENE WITH HASTE. WE TURNED THAT DOWN. FOR NUMEROUS REASONS, TOO NUMEROUS TO MENTION YET, WE WERE ASKED TO TRACK THE MISSION FROM THE HOSTAGE RESCUE TO AN OFFENSIVE MISSION AND MENTOR THE TROOPS THAT HAVE TOYED FOR US. WE IMMEDIATELY DEPLOYED THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE 7th INFANTRY DIVISION. NOW THE INDEPENDENT INTELLIGENCE WAS TO COLLECT INTELLIGENCE AND FROM THAT INTELLIGENCE LIES WITH THE NIGERIAN ARMY. BUT WE ALSO NEEDED HIM TO GIVE US FEEDBACK ON TERRAIN, THE PYROTACTICS THAT BOKO HAREM WOULD DEVELOP A DOCTRINE THAT WAS REALISTIC AND WORKABLE AND N ALG WITH THAT NEW TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES. WE GOT THE STRIKE FORCE WHICH IS NAMED THE 72nd MOBILE STRIKE FORCE AS IT’S GOING TO BE THE SEVENTH DIVISION. BUT SADLY THE MOBILE STRIKE FORCE WAS POORLY EQUIPPED, MUNITIONS SHORT HAJJES, EQUIP SHORTAGES, THE NIGERIAN ARMY LEFT THE TRAINING, LEFT THE ABILITY TO FLY THEIR WEAPONS EFFECTIVELY. BUT NEVERTHELESS, WE FORGED AHEAD FROM THE NIGERIAN INFANTRY TO SHORE UP THE DIVISION. AND WE WERE GIVEN A STEP — THE COMPANY, WE WERE GIVEN INDEPENDENCE OVER THE 22nd. AND THEN WE WENT TO THE CAMPAIGN STRATEGY. NEXT, EDDIE? THE FIRST WAS TO DIVIDE THE BOKO HAREM OPERATIONS AND ANNIHILATE THE ENEMY ON THE INTERNET. IT MEANT THAT THE 72nd WOULD RETAKE THROUGH BOKO STRONG HOLDS ON THE EXITS TOWARDS CAMEROON. THEN WE WENT BEYOND AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE SEVENTH DIVISION WITH ACTIVELY PATROL AND DOMINATE THE SWITCH AND BE DRIVEN INTO THE ENEMY’S AREA OF OPERATIONS. PHASE TWO TO RETAKE AND CULMINATE BOKO SOUTH — THE FORCE WOULD RETAKE IT. SEVENTH DIVISION WOULD OCCUPY KEY AREAS OF TERRAIN, WAS AN OCCUPATION AND DEFENSIVE POSITIONS, WE WOULD DETACH MEN TO START RETRAINING THOSE THAT WERE ON TARGET. AND THEN THE STRIKE FORCE WOULD LOCATE AND ANNIHILATE BOKO HAREM ELEMENTS. THEY WHEN ARE TO TAKE THE STRONG HOLDS NORTH. STRIKE FORCE WAS INTENDED TO TAKE DOWN THEM. THE SEVENTH DIVISION WAS TO OCCUPY KEY TERRAIN AND AREAS WHILE THE 72nd LOCATED AND ANNIHILATED BOKO HAREM ELEMENTS. FORCED TO CHANGE IN THE ENTIRE CAMPAIGN DESIGN. AND THE PERIOD WE HAVE LEFT, WE COULD ONLY RETAKE MARFA. HOWEVER, FOR THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT TO TERMINATE OUR ENGAGEMENT. HOWEVER PRESIDENT JONATHAN SAW THIS AND HE WAS ULTIMATELY ASKED TO — IT CAME TO THE END OF OUR THREE-MONTH CONTRACT WHICH WAS NOT RENEWED BY THE INCOMING PRESIDENT. HOWEVER, IN ONE MONTH’S OPERATIONS, WE TOOK BACK TERRITORY LARGER THAN BELGIUM FROM BOKO HAREM. THEY WERE ORDERED TO DISBAND THE STRIKE FORCE AND ORDERED NOT ONLY TO THE SEVENTH DIVISION BUT ALSO TO THE NIGERIAN ARMY HIGH COMMAND. WE IGNORED AND BOKO HAREM HAS RETURNED IN A BIT MORE VICIOUS THAN WHAT THEY USED TO BE. SO JUST A SUMMATION AND THE LESSONS WE LEARNED. A PROGRESSION ANGLE WAS ENTIRELY REALISTIC, FEASIBLE, AND SUSTAINABLE. THERE’S NOTHING WRONG WITH AFRICAN SOLDIERS IF THEY ARE WELL TRAINED AND LED. INTELLIGENCE IS VITAL TO ALLOW THE FLEXIBILITY AND PREDICTION BECAUSE WE NEEDED TO PREDICT WHAT THE ENEMY IS GOING DO. E — GOING TO DO. IF WE CAN’T DO THAT, WE GIVE HIM INITIATIVE AND WE PUT OURSELVES AT A DISADVANTAGE. WE NEED THE LOGISTICS MEANT TO MAINTAIN THE TEMPER. SO THAT’S A VERY IMPORTANT THING THAT AFRICANS UNDERSTAND AFRICANS. IT NOT ONLY CONSISTS OF SO-CALLED WHITE SOUTH AFRICANS, WE ARE A MIX OF AFRICANS FROM SEVERAL COUNTRIES AROUND SOUTH AFRICA GOING RIGHT UP TO ANGOLA RIGHT TO UGANDA PART OF THE COMPANY. WE NEED TO EXPLOIT TECHNOLOGY AND THE LACK OF TECHNOLOGY THAT EXISTED IN THE NIGERIAN ARMY GAVE THE ENEMY QUITE A BIT OF RESPITE. WE NEED TO CAMPAIGN DESIGN IN ALIGNMENT WITH THE GOVERNMENT STRATEGY. IF WE’RE NOT PREPARED TO DO THAT, WE’RE REALLY TRAINING FOR, I DON’T KNOW, FOR SOMETHING THAT’S NOT GOING TO BE REQUIRED. BOTH TAKEN BY SURPRISE BY THE AGGRESSION, THE SPEED, AND THE STRIKE FORCES OPERATIONS. AND THERE’S SEVERAL VULNERABILITIES, AND THESE VULNERABILITIES WERE IDENTIFIED DURING CONTACT WITH THEM AND WE NEED TO EXPLOIT THOSE VULNERABILITIES. THE STRIKE FORCE AND INTEND TO ACHIEVE OPERATIONAL SUCCESS. WHAT IS IMPORTANT IS THAT IT’S ALL VALUABLE ASSETS MUST BE ALIGNED AND SYNCHRONIZED TO OPERATE IN THE HARMONIOUS WAY AND TO FORCE THAT ON THE ENI. EQUAL — ENEMY. EQUAL SUCCESSES DO NOT EQUATE TO SUCCESSES AT ALL. THE CONTACT BETWEEN STTEP AND THE NIGERIAN ARMY AND THE 72nd MOBILE STRIKE FORCE, WE SUFFERED TWO DEATHS FROM OUR COMPANY, SEVERAL NIGERIAN TROOPS WERE INJURED. AND SEVERAL FALSE MEDIA REPORTS IMMEDIATELY STARTED CIRCULATING STATING THAT WE ARE NOW REFUSING TO DEPLOY, WHICH IS REALLY JUST A CHEAP SHOT BY THE MEDIA. VERY IMPORTANTLY, SOLDIERS CAN ONLY DO WHAT WE’RE TRAINED TO DO. IF WE TRAIN THEM WELL, THEY WILL DO WELL. BUT MOST IMPORTANTLY FOR US, VIOLENCE AND ANTI-GOVERNMENT FORCES CAN BE DEFEATED. WE JUST HAVE TO REALLY PUT OUR MINDS TO IT AND DO IT. SO IF I LOOK AT PRIVATE MILITARY AND SECURITY COMPANIES IN GENERAL, I’M GIVING A PERSONAL OPINION. AND IT’S ONE OF THE THINGS, IF THE SHOE FITS, WEAR IT. I DO BELIEVE I CAN MAKE A VERY POSITIVE IMPACT ON SECURITY AND POLICY IF THEY UNDERSTAND THE OPERATION ENVIRONMENT, THE AREA OF OPERATIONS, THE NATIONAL STRATEGIES, THE NATIONAL STRATEGY, AND DOCK TREENAIL GAPS BECAUSE IT’S THESE THAT GIVE THE ENEMY THE ADVANTAGE. SADLY I HAVE TO MENTION THIS THAT ARROGANCE NEEDS TO BE LEFT AT HOME. MANY PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES COMING WITH AN ATTITUDE THAT MAY NOT BE ARROGANCE, IT MIGHT BE OVERCONFIDENCE. THAT TRANSLATES TO ARROGANCE TO MANY AFTERRY KORAN SOLDIERS AND IT USUALLY PUTS A DAMPER ON EFFORTS. THEY NEED TO ADD VALUE, NOT JUST TRAIN TO TRAIN. TRAINING COURAGE NEEDS TO BE DETERMINED BECAUSE IF IT’S NOT DETERMINED, THE TROOPS ARE GOING TO GET TO A POINT WHERE THEY BECOME STUCK. PRIVATE COMPANIES NEED TO PRODUCE POSITIVE RESULTS, BECAUSE THAT WILL ENHANCE INTERNATIONAL, NOT ONLY REGIONAL, BUT INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AS WELL AS ESTABLISH GOOD FOREIGN RELATIONS. IT IS NOT GOOD RELATIONSHIPS FROM WHAT WE ARE WITNESSING. THEY NEED TO BE DEDICATED AND NOT CASH DRIVEN. IT’S NOT ABOUT KEEPING THE GOOSE THAT LAYS THE GOLDEN EGG ALIVE, IT’S ABOUT SLAYING THAT GOOSE, BECAUSE IF YOU DO THAT, YOU’RE GOING TO GAIN A LOT MORE CREDITABILITY FROM THESE GOVERNMENTS. THEY NEED TO BE SELECTED ON RESULTS, AND EYEWITNESS IN MY HOME COUNTRY, SOMEONE WHO SPENT TWO OR THREE YEARS IN THE MILITARY, YOU START A PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANY, DOESN’T REALLY KNOW WHAT TO DO AND ACTUALLY GETS A CONTRACT. IN SOME MANNER OR FORM AND EVENTUALLY THESE THINGS COLLAPSE AND IT PUTS THE ENTIRE INDUSTRY AS WELL AS THE GOVERNMENT — WHERE THAT COMPANY COMES FROM IN TO A BIT OF DISREPUTE. THEY NEED TO BE CONTROLLED AND WORK IN ACCORDANCE WITH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT DIRECTORS. AND I UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREIGN INTERESTS VERSUS NATIONAL AND VITAL INTERESTS, BUT WE NEED TO GET THERE SO IF WE ALL WORK FOR A COMMON PURPOSE, THAT’S TO ANNIHILATE THE ENEMY. WE NEED TO BE PREPARED TO WORK WITH MANY MEN AND EQUIPMENT AND SHARE THE SAME HARDSHIPS THAT THE TROOPS DO. THAT INCLUDES AYCCCOMMACCOMMODAO MEALS, TO BEING ABLE TO WATCH TELEVISION, TO HAVE COLD SOFT DRINKS AT TIMES. WHEN WE DEPLOY, WE LIVE WITH THEM, WE WORK WITH THEM, WE EAT WHAT THEY EAT. IT HELPS TO DEVELOP A TRUST RELATIONSHIP AND A SITUATION WHERE WE UNDERSTAND THAT WE’RE WILLING TO FIGHT EXACTLY WHAT THEY’RE WILLING TO FIGHT. VERY IMPORTANTLY, WE NEED TO SET 24 TO BOTH MILITARY AND CIVIL SOCIETY, ESPECIALLY FOR THE PEOPLE WHO ARE LIVING AND WORK ING AND THOSE AREAS WHERE THEY’RE DEPLOYED. WE NEED TO IMPLEMENT SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PROGRAMS BUT THOSE PROGRAMS NEED TO BE CLEARED BY THE GOVERNMENT. BECAUSE WHAT WE NEED TO BE CONSIDERED RESPONSIBILITY, MAY NOT BE ON THE GOVERNMENT’S TOP LIST IN TERMS OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES. VERY IMPORTANTLY, REMAIN GOOD GUESTS AND LEAVE AS FRIENDS THAT WILL BE MISSED. I THINK IT’S SAID THAT WHAT WE’RE TOLD IS COMPANY X IS HERE. WE’VE BEEN DOING THESE AND DON’T WANT TO COME BACK. AND I THINK IT REFLECTS WELL ON THE INDUSTRY AND IT DOESN’T REFLECT WELL ON WHAT WE CONSIDERED TO BE A PROFESSIONAL APPROACH TO WORK. NEXT ONE, PLEASE? JUST SOME COMMENTS ON AFRICAN GOVERNMENT IN GENERAL. THESE ARE OBVIOUSLY THINGS YOU CAN’T ALWAYS SAY TO THEM. BUT THEY NEED TO ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE STRATEGIC DIRECTION THEY’RE TAKING ALONG WITH THE FAILURES IN GOVERNANCE, WHICH ARE MANY. AND THE BEST WAY TO OVERCOME THAT IS TO ALMOST DRIVE THEM TO A POSITION WHERE THEY START MAKING BETTER STRATEGIC DECISIONS. THERE IS A FAILURE TO DEVELOP INTERNATIONAL UNITY. IN THE SMALL AREA WE’RE WORKING IN, IT BECOMES IMPORTANT FOR US TO UNITE PEOPLE, NOT IN TERMS OF PARTY POLITICS, ETC., BUT IN TERMS OF SUPPORTING OVERALL GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES IN THE AREA. THERE’S A HUGE AMOUNT OF PSEUDODEMOCRACY IN AFRICA. BECAUSE DEMOCRACY HAS BECOME A BUZZ WORD IN ORDER TO GET FUNDING. WE NEED TO ACCEPT THAT AND TRY TO MANAGE IT AND WORK AROUND IT. WE KNOW THAT CERTAIN GOVERNMENTS CLAIM TO BE DEMOCRATIC BUT THEY KNOW AND WE KNOW THEY SHOULD — NOT THAT THEY ARE GIVEN MONEY, MONEY CAN’T BE THROWN TO SOLVE A PROBLEM. THAT DOESN’T SOLVE THE PROBLEM. WHAT SOLVES THE PROBLEM IS HOW THE MONEY IS USED AND HOW THE FORCES ARE PREPARED TO END A SPECIFIC PROBLEM. FREE ADVISOR TRAINING ISN’T ALWAYS FREE. THERE ARE STRINGS ATTACKED. WE ARE WILLING TO HELP YOU ON CONDITION, THE FOLLOWING — AND THE FOLLOWING MIGHT BE TO SPECIFIC POLITICAL DECISION TAKEN, CERTAIN INFRASTRUCTURE OR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ETC. THEY NEED TO DEVELOP A LARGER DEGREE OF INDEPENDENT POLITICAL ROLE AND FOR THE LACK OF GOVERNMENTS IN POLITICAL WILL IS WHAT CONTRIBUTED HUGELY TO THESE CONFLICTS WE’RE SEEING IN AFRICA. AND THIS LACK IS ACTUALLY ALLOWED, THE ENEMY COULD COME IN AND GAIN AN ADVANTAGE. VERY IMPORTANT IS THE BLOATED ARMIES CAN’T WIN WARS. THE AFRICAN WARS ARE NOT THE TYPE OF WARS WE EXPERIENCE AND WITNESS. IN EUROPE IN WORLD WAR II AND THE TYPE OF CONFLICTS THAT ARE GOING IN AFGHANISTAN AND IRAQ, ETC. THEY’RE FOR NUMEROUS REASONS. ONE COULD GO INTO A DEBATE ABOUT THOSE REASONS, BUT I THINK THE IMPORTANT THING IS THE SIZE OF THE ARMY DOES NOT MATTER. WHAT MATTER IS HOW THE MEN ARE TRAINED, HOW THEY ARE EQUIPPED, AND WHAT SORT OF MILITARY WILL EXIST IN ORDER TO MAKE THEM ACHIEVE SUCCESS. UNREALISTIC STRATEGIES LEAD TO FAILURE. AND UNFORTUNATELY, THAT FAILURE COSTS THE LIVES OF GOOD MEN. WE’VE SEEN MANY BAD STRATEGIES BE IMPLEMENTED AND STOOD BACK AND WATCHED AND ALLOWED THOSE THINGS TO HAPPEN. AND SUBSEQUENTLY, PEOPLE HAVE DIED AND THOSE DEATHS HAVE GIVEN THE ENEMY ADDED MOMENTUM AND CONFIDENCE IN WHAT THEY BELIEVE IS THE WAR THEY’RE GOING TO WIN. AND OBVIOUSLY NO OR FAULTY OR BAD INTELLIGENCE IS A GUARANTEE FOR FAILURE. INTELLIGENCE NEEDS TO ANALYZE NOT BASED ON RUMOR, GUESSWORK, INOUE WHEN D– INNUENDO, ETC. NEXT ONE? BRIEFLY IN TERMS OF POLITICS, STRATEGY, AND DOCTRINE, EVERYONE WHO DEPLOYS INTO AFRICA ARE WELL AWARE OF THE IMPACT OF THESE THREE WORDS — THE CRUCIAL IMPACT THEY HAVE ON OVERALL WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO ACHIEVE. AFRICAN CONFLICTS OR THE AFRICAN CONTINENT IS EXTREMELY COMPLEX, HOSTILE, UNSTABLE, AND EXTREMELY VIOLENT AS WELL. THE NATIONAL STRATEGY, THE NATIONAL SECURITY IS STRATEGY, THE NATIONAL MILITARY STRATEGY, ETC., IS OFTEN AN ILL-FATED SECURITY TRAJECTORY. AS PRIVATE COMPANIES, WE OUGHT TO BE HELPING GOVERNMENTS TO ACHIEVE THIS. A LACK OF CREDIBLE REALISTIC INTELLIGENCE OBVIOUSLY RESULTS IN GOOD DECISION MAKING BUT IT’S ALSO OFTEN REJECTED. AND THEY WHEN I SHALL TO BELIEVE AND WHICH IS OFTEN REALLY BASED ON GOSSIP AND INNUENDO. PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE POLITICAL AND MILITARY ENVIRONMENT THEY’RE OPERATING IN AS WELL AS A STRATEGIC DIRECTION OF THAT GOVERNMENT THAT NEEDS YOUR HELP. WE HAVE TO OPERATE IN THE CONFINES OF OFTEN ZERO NATIONAL MILITARY STRATEGY. BEING ABLE TO IMPLEMENT SOMEONE’S VISION WITHOUT THE CORRECT EQUIPMENT, WITHOUT THE MANPOWER REALLY BECOMES AN EXERCISE IN DIFFICULTIES. VERY IMPORTANT, WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE ENEMY AND THE CULTURE. ONE OF THE PROBLEMS WE ENCOUNTERED IN NIGERIA IS MANY OF THE TROOPS THAT MADE THE FINAL SELECTION ARE ALSO FROM THE ISLAMIC FAITH AND THEY HAVE TO BE CONVINCED TO GO AND FIGHT THOSE WHO ARE ALSO OF THE ISLAMIC FAITH. SO WE HAVE TO UNDERSTAND CULTURE AND KNOW THOUSAND — HOW TO DESTROY CULTURE AND HOW TO — THE AFRICAN ARMIES — ARMIES FROM THE TRADITIONAL WEST OR ARMIES IN THE TRADITIONAL EAST ARE STRUCTURED IN A MANNER TO FIGHT ON THE BATTLEFIELD SUCH AS EUROPE OR ELSEWHERE. AFRICAN DON’T ALLOW FOR THAT AND THERE’S REASONS WHY THE LARGE ARMIES REALLY ARE INEFFECTIVE. IT GOES BACK TO EDUCATION LEVELS, TO TRAINING, TO THE TYPE THAT’S AVAILABLE, TO THE TIME YOU’RE FACING TO THE TIME YOU HAVE IN WHICH TO TRAIN THESE FORCES. BECAUSE ANTIQUATED DOCTRINES COUPLED WITH THE VERY LARGE ARMIES REALLY DO NOT MOVE. WE NEED TO ADAPT AND THE ARMED FORCES AND THE PRIVATE INDUSTRY TO THE TERRAIN AND THE ENEMY. BECAUSE THERE IS NO TEMPLATE APPROACH TO DEFEATING AN ENEMY. A TROPICAL FOREST OR JUNGLE DIFFERS VASTLY FROM A DESERT OR SAVANNAH-TYPE TERRAIN. ALL OF THEM ARE UNIQUE CHALLENGES. WE NEED TO IDENTIFY AND TRAIN THOSE TROOPS ON THE — CONTROL, COMMAND, WHATEVER WE WISH TO CALL IT, TO OPERATE EXACTLY AS ACQUIRED WITHIN THOSE AREAS. WE CANNOT FIX BAD TRAINING AND BROKEN STRATEGIES. I’VE HEARD PEOPLE SAY, NO, WE’LL JUST ASK FOR MORE MONEY. THERE’S NO MONEY TO BE GIVEN IF YOU’RE PAID BY THAT GOVERNMENT IN PARTICULAR. AND ANY AMOUNT OF MONEY COMING IN IS NOT GOING TO MAKE ANY DIFFERENCE IF THE FOUNDATION IS BEING BADLY LAID. AND OBVIOUSLY THIS PROBLEM IS AMPLIFIED WHEN SUPPORT IS GIVEN TO BOTH THE GOVERNMENT AND THE ANTI-GOVERNMENT FORCES, BECAUSE THIS SORT OF STALEMATE ALLOWS FOR — FOR WANT OF A BETTER WORD, CALL IT DUBIOUS FOREIGN INTEREST TO ACTUALLY TAKE CONTROL OF THE DAMAGES. AND WE CAN JUST LOOK AT SEVERAL COUNTRIES IN AFRICA WHERE SUPPORT IS GIVEN TO BOTH THE GOVERNMENT AND TO THE ANTI-GOVERNMENT FORCES AND THESE CONFLICTS REALLY DEVELOPED TO PROXY WARS WITH NO END IN SIGHT. NEXT ONE, PLEASE? THE PRIVATE COMPANIES IN THE GAME BEING OVERLY CRITICAL. I’M NOT POINTING THE FINGER BUT I BELIEVE I WOULD BE A LIAR IF I SAT HERE AND SAID EVERYTHING IS PERFECT? THERE IS AN UNFOUNDED ARROGANCE OR PERCEIVED ARROGANCE BY SOME COMPANIES THAT ARRIVE IN AMERICA. THE AFRICAN ARMIES IN AFRICA. THAT SKILL SET NEEDS TO BE FOUND, DEVELOPED, AND EXPLOITED CORRECTLY. MANY OF THESE COMPANIES HAVE ABSOLUTELY NO EXPERIENCE OF THE AFRICAN OPERATING ENVIRONMENT OR THE AREA OF OPERATION. AND THEY DON’T UNDERSTAND THE HUGE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM, TRIBALISM, PLANNISM, BELIEF SYSTEMS, AND IF THE BELIEF SYSTEMS WHERE OUR PEOPLE OR NO IS TOTALLY IRRELEVANT. WE HAVE TO LIVE WITH IT, WE HAVE TO WORK WITH IT. IT’S ONE THING THAT ANY CULTURE OR TRADITION IS GOING ON TO DO — AND QUICKLY TAKING AWAY SOMEONE’S CULTURAL TRADITION, THAT MIGHT GIVE YOU A BACKGROUND, BUT THAT’S NOT THE BACKGROUND YOU NEED. TRACK RECORD OF SUCCESS MEANS ONE THING. IT’S COMPLETELY DIFFERENT. ONE OF THOSE THINGS, TALK THE TALK, WALK THE WALK AS WELL. OFFERED ENGAGING IN ACTIVITIES THAT WE CONSIDER TO BE ODDLY DESPICABLE ABUSE OF POWER. WE’RE NOT THERE TO ABUSE POWER OR TO GO AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT OR TO IDENTIFY OTHER BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES THAT WE CAN EXP EXPLOIT. SO THOSE PEOPLE WHO ARE PAYING US TO HELP THEM. A HUGE PROBLEM IS THEY DON’T UNDERSTAND THE MINDSET OF AFRICAN TROOPS. THERE IS A MINDSET, BUT, AGAIN, NOT A MINDSET THAT HAVE SEPARATES FROM EXACTLY UGANDA TO NIGERIA, TO ANGOLA, FOR EXAMPLE. WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE MINDSET IN THE SPECIFIC AREA THAT WE WORK IN. WE NEED TO REALIZE THAT AFRICA IS A LOW-TECH ENVIRONMENT. AND OFTEN WE SEE HIGH-TECH EQUIPMENT FAIL. WHEN THAT FAILURE HAPPENS, WHEN THAT GPS HAS GOT NO MORE COURAGE, TROOPS HAVE TO LEARN HOW TO USE A MAP. HOW TO USE THE MAP IN DEGREES LIKE DIRECT FIRE, WITHOUT BEING ABLE TO GIVE THEM PROPERN COORDINATES. NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE POLITICAL, RELIGIOUS ENVIRONMENT WHICH IS CRITICALLY IMPORTANT BECAUSE TRUE CLANS MIGHT BE FIGHTING ONE ANOTHER. MANY ARE UNABLE TO TRAIN SOUTH AFRICAN TROOPS. I UNDERSTAND THAT OFTEN CONTRACTS ONLY MAKE PROVISION FOR TRAINING. THERE ENLIES THE PROBLEM IF YOU TRAIN AFRICAN SOLDIERS AND YOU DO NOT WORK WITH THEM, THE IMMEDIATE PERCEPTION IS YOU ARE TO EMPLOY THEM. YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND THAT THEY ARE GUESTS ON THIS CONTINENT. THAT HAS A HUGE IMPACT ON CIVIL MILITARY RELATIONS. JUST ACTUAL REFUSAL TO INTEGRATE WITH THE TROOPS. PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES LIVING ONE SIDE AND THE TROOPS LIVING ON THE OTHER SIDE. AND JUST REFLECTS BADLY. WE DON’T TRY TO FIND OURSELVES LIVE IN KINGDOMS WHEN THEY LIVE UNDER THATCHED ROOFS THAT ARE FALLING IN. WE LIVE WITH THEM. WE SHARE THEIR HARDSHIPS BECAUSE THAT’S HOW YOU GAIN THE TRUST AND THE LOYALTY OF THESE TROOPS. AND ALL OF IT HAS A SUPER NEGATIVE IMPACT ON FOREIGN POLICIES AS WELL AS ON INTERNATIONAL SECURITY. BECAUSE THESE STORIES, PEOPLE TALK, THEY HAVE ACCESS TO SOCIAL MEDIA AND THEY CAN COMMUNICATE WITH ONE ANOTHER. SO, I THINK I’VE GOTTEN TO THE END. I THANK YOU. NO ONE FELL OFF OF THEIR CHAIRS WHILE I WAS TALKING. THANK YOU VERY MUCH. . >>WE CAN GIVE A ROUND OF APPLAUSE TO EEBEN. [ APPLAUSE ] CAN YOU HEAR ME WELL, EEBEN? EEBEN, CAN YOU HEAR ME?>>YEAH, I GOT YOU.>>ALL RIGHT. SO, WE ARE OPENING UP FOR Q&A, WE HAVE ABOUT 15 MINUTES. AND I’M HAVE A MOBILE MIC IN MY HAND, CAN YOU STILL HEAR ME, EEBEN?>>I GOT YOU, EDDIE.>>GREAT, IT’S FUNCTIONING. ANYBODY WANTS TO FIRE OFF — I’M SORRY, OKAY.>>OH, I DON’T — I’M HANDING IT TO PEOPLE. >>THAT’S FINE. THAT’S FINE. YOU CAN HAND IT TO PEOPLE. . >>EEBEN, GOOD AFTERNOON, THANK YOU FOR YOUR INFORMATIVE SUMMARY THIS MORNING OVER HERE IN THE UNITED STATES. MY QUESTION WAS YOU BRIEFLY POINTED OUT IN YOUR PRESENTATION THAT BOKO HAREM HAS SEVERAL WITNESSES. WOULD YOU LIKE TO ELABORATE ON WHAT SOME OF THE WEAKENESSES MIGHT BE?>>JUST ONE OF THE MAJOR WEAKWEAKENS — ONE OF THE MAJOR WEAKNESSES, CAN YOU HEAR ME? OKAY, JOSH, ONE OF THE MAJOR WEAKNESSES WAS AT THIS STAGE OR AS SOON AS THEY COME UNDER ATTACK, THEY DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLE OF DEFENSE AND THEREFORE LIVE IN THOSE POSITIONS. IT’S LIVING IN THOSE POSITIONS TO ALLOW YOU TO ACHIEVE YOUR AIM AND TAKE BACK THOSE POSITIONS WITH THEM. I THINK THAT’S WHERE WE FOUND SEVERAL OF THE ANTI-GOVERNMENT FORCES. THEY ARE TRAINED IN ORDER TO CONDUCT SMALL TEAM TYPE WORK, AMB AMBUSHES, RAIDS, ETC. BUT AS SOON AS THEY COME UNDER SUSTAINED PRESSURE, THEY’RE UNABLE TO ABSORB THAT PRESSURE AND THEN BREAK IN RANK.>>GOOD DAY, EEBEN. YOU HAVE A VERY PRAGMATIC APPROACH AND YOU TALKED ABOUT TECHNOLOGY, PRAGMATIC TRAINING, EQUIPMENT, COULD YOU ELABORATE ON THE EQUIPMENT THAT YOU USE AND SPECIFICS ON THE TRAINING YOU DID TO BE PRAGMATIC AND ACHIEVE THE RESULTS THAT YOU DID?>>I THINK ONE OF THE FIRST PROBLEMS WE FACED. CAN YOU HEAR ME? OKAY. ONE OF THE FIRST PROBLEMS WE WERE FACED WITH WAS THE FACT THAT MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING WAS SORELY LACKING. IN FACT, DESPITE HAVING BEEN TRAINED BY SEVERAL PEOPLE, MANY OF THE TROOPS HAD NEVER FIRED A LIVE ROUND IN THEIR LIVES, ONLY FIRED BLANKS. SO WE HAD TO TRAIN THEM ON HOW TO USE LIVE AMMUNITION BECAUSE WE DO NOT BELIEVE IN TRAINING WITH BLANK AMMUNITION. JUST LIVE AMMUNITION TRAINING IS VERY IMPORTANT. THAT WAS ONE THING. SIGNALS TRAINING, OTHER TRAINING WAS LOW STANDARD. FIELD CRAFT WAS ALMOST NONEXISTENT AND BASIC PATROL FORMATIONS COULD SEE HAD BEEN TAUGHT SOMEWHERE. IN TERMS OF EQUIPMENT, WE NEVER GOT THE VEHICLES WE WANTED. OUR INDIRECT FIRE SUPPORT ON THE TOWN CALLED M — MARTHA CONSISTED OF TWO GAZELLE HELICOPTERS BOUGHT BY THE NIGERIAN ARMY THAT GOT IN THE DOOR. SO THAT’S WHERE THE GUN SHIPS OF WHICH WE HAD TWO. THEY GRUDGINGLY GAVE US THE ONE THAT THEY HAD. SO JUST BEFORE WE LEFT ABOUT THREE HELICOPTER GUN SHIPS UNDER THEIR COMMAND. IT’S VERY IMPORTANT TO US BECAUSE WE NEEDED TO ALLOCATE CERTAIN RESTRICTED AREAS FOR THE GUN SHIPS TO GO IN AT NIGHT. AND EVENTUALLY, WE WERE ABLE TO START DOING THAT. IN TERMS OF OUR INDIRECT FIRE SUPPORT, WE HAD ONE 80, 2 MILLIMETER MORTARS AND TWO 60-MILLIMETER MORTARS. WE GOT ONE 22 MILLIMETER WE WERE ABLE TO USE BUT WE HAD HUGE AMMUNITION SHORTAGES. SO WE HAD TO MAKE SURE THAT THE FIRST ROUND WAS PLACED EXACTLY ON TARGET BEFORE WE COULD FIRE. 12.7 AMMUNITION ALMOST RAN OUT AFTER WE HAD TAKEN MARFA BECAUSE THERE WAS NO LOGISTICAL BACKUP AND NO PLANNING HAD BEEN MADE IN THE NIGERIAN ARMY. THEY HAD TO GO AND BORROW THE NIGERIAN NAVY’S ENTIRE STOCK OF 12.7 AMMUNITION. ONLY TO REALIZE WHEN IT CAME TO A DIFFERENT CALIBER OR A DIFFERENT TYPE OF ROUND THAT’S USED BY THE NAVY. SO THESE ARE PROBLEMS WE HAVE TO WORK TO OVERCOME. BUT, THESE THINGS HAVE A HUGE IMPACT ON THE MEN. AND YOU HAVE TO CHANGE THEIR MINDSETS SO THEY DON’T THINK THEY’VE GOT — ARMED FORCES BY PUTTING THEM IN A POSITION OF DANGER. YOU HAVE TO ADAPT. WE NEVER HAD ENOUGH 12.7s TO MOUNT ON EVERY VEHICLE SO WE DEVISED OUR OWN SYSTEM CARRYING LARGE MACHINE GUN US ON CERTAIN VEHICLES. WE HAD NO INTERVEHICLE COMMUNICATIONS BECAUSE THEY DIDN’T HAVE RADIOS. AND THAT GOT US BACK TO OTHERS WHO HAD ADVISED THEM AND TRAINING THEM, THESE ARE BASIC THINGS THAT SHOULD HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED VERY EARLY IN TRAINING. I COULD ELABORATE ON THAT BUT I WON’T.>>EEBEN, GOOD MORNING, IVAN HERE. I HAVE A QUESTION — YOU MENTIONED THE IDEA OF DOCTRINEALBLINDNESS AND THE MINDSET OF THE AFRICAN SOLDIER. IS THERE A LENGTH AND CAN YOU ELABORATE A LITTLE BIT ON THAT?>>GOOD SO TO SEE YOU THERE. THOUGH IS GOING TO BE ON THE AFRICAN SOLDIER. I’M PROBABLY SUBJECTIVE. IF HE’S WELL TRAINED, EQUIPPED, PROPERLY LAID, HE’S AN INCREDIBLY GOOD SOLDIER. SHE’S TOUGH, HARDY, AND CARRY OUT HIS ORDERS AND HE’S TOLD WHAT — HE DOES WHAT HE’S TOLD TO DO. THAT’S NOT WHAT YOU SEE IN ARMIES. WHEN WE COME TO DOCTRINAL BLINDNESS, ONE OF THE THINGS WE FIND IS THAT THE DOCTRINE IS BEING TAUGHT. EVERY PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANY OR FAR MILITARY THAT COMES INTO AFRICA, TRIES TO CREATE A CLONE OF WHAT THEY PERCEIVE THEMSELVES TO BE. AND THOSE ARE OPTIONS WE CANNOT JUST TAKE AS TEMPLATES AND PLACE ON A SPECIFIC AREA AND THEN HOPE TO ACHIEVE SUCCESS. WE NEED TO LOOK AND REVISIT OUR DOCTRINES AGAIN. ESPECIALLY AFRICA. WHATEVER DOCTRINES WE’RE LOOKING AT, MUCH OF THE VALUE TO THOSE AREAS WHERE THEY PREDICT COMBAT WILL TAKE PLACE, THEY ARE NOT SUITABLE AND ARE NOT REALISTIC TO BE APPLIED INTO AFRICA. DID I ANSWER THAT?>>GOOD MORNING, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR SPEAKING WITH US. MY QUESTION IS WHAT EFFECT CAN PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES HAVE ON THE PEACEMAKING PROCESS, ESPECIALLY IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA? THANK YOU.>>COULD THAT BE REPEATED FOR ME? I DIDN’T HEAR THAT PROPERLY?>>SORRY. I JUST SAID WHAT EFFECT CAN PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES HAVE ON THE PEACEMAKING PROCESS IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA?>>I THINK A HUGE IMPACT IF THEY ARE REALLY THERE TO ADD VALUE TO WHATEVER GOVERNMENT IS DOING. MANY YEARS AGO, I CHAIRED A COMPANY CALLED EXECUTIVE OUTCOMES CAN. IT EFFECTIVELY TRAINED — A BRIGADE OF THE GOLDEN ARMY AND FORCED THE ENEMY TO AN UNCONDITIONAL CEASE-FIRE. BUT THE SAME HAPPENED IN SIERRA LEON. AND THE SAME IS HAPPENING IN A DIFFERENT CULTURE. HOWEVER, OLEATE APPROXIMATELY MAKING MY PIECE AND ESTABLISHING THE SIDELINES FOR PEACE BECOMES THE OPPORTUNITY OF GOVERNMENT. PRIVATE MILITARY CAN ADD VALUE TO THE MILITARY OPERATIONS TO CREATE A CLIMATE OF NEGOTIATION THAT CAN TAKE PLACE. BUT ULTIMATELY, THAT’S GOING TO BE BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND THE ENEMY AT THAT STAGE OF THE WAR. I DON’T KNOW IF THAT ANSWERS THE QUESTION.>>LAURA DICK — INSON, GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY. THANK YOU FOR THAT TALK. I’M A LAW PROFESSOR AND A LAWYER. NORMALLY MY INTEREST TURNS TOWARDS THE LAW. I NOTICED YOU DIDN’T MENTION THAT IN YOUR TALK. I WONDER IF YOU COULD SPEAK ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF LAW IN THIS CONTEXT. LAW CAN FOLLOW, THE LAW OF OUR CONFLICT CAN ADD TO THE LEGITIMACY OF OPERATIONS, I HAVE MILITARY OPERATIONS. IF YOU CAN SPEAK TO THAT AND ALSO THE CHALLENGES OF APPLYING THE LAW IN THIS CONTEXT.>>I REALLY AM — YEAH. I APOLOGIZE IF I DIDN’T HEAR THE ENTIRE QUESTION. I’LL ANSWER WHAT I BELIEVE TO BE THE FIRST PART THAT I HEARD. AND THAT’S IN TERMS OF THE LAWFULNESS OF WHAT IS BEING EXERCISED, IS THAT CORRECT?>>I’M INTERESTED OF THE WAY OF WHICH FOLLOWING THE LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT AND ENCOURAGING OTHERS TO DO SO ENHANCES THE LEGITIMACY OF OPERATIONS. I’M ALSO INTERESTED IF YOU CAN SPEAK TO THE CHALLENGES OF DOING THAT IN THIS CONTEXT?>>LET ME START OFF BY SAYING THAT PART OF THE CHALLENGES THAT WE ARE FACED WITH IS THAT THE ARMED FORCES ARE OFTEN DEPLOYED INTERNALLY IN A POLICING ROLE. AND WHAT THAT HAS EFFECTIVELY DONE IS ALMOST DELAYED AND UNDECLARED STATE OF MARTIAL LAW. AND OFTEN THOSE MILITARIES OVERRIDE THE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES IN TERMS OF CERTAIN LAWS. I THINK POSSIBLY, WE FIND OURSELVES IN A FORTUNATE POSITION IN THAT WE TRAIN, WE’RE VERY ISOLATED. THEY ARE REMOVED FROM THAT ENVIRONMENT. THEY SEE THEMSELVES ABOVE THE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES. AND THAT’S VERY EASY FOR US TO INFLUENCE THEM. WE ARE INCREDIBLY STRICT NO MATTER WHAT ANYBODY HAS TO SAY ABOUT IT. BUT THE REALITY IS WE ENFORCE DISCIPLINE ON EVERYONE IN THE COMPANY AND WHO’S BEEN TRAINED BY US BECAUSE ULTIMATELY THE ACCEPTANCE AND THE HE GALTY OF WHAT THEY’RE DOING IS GOING TO BE GIVEN BY THE LOCAL POPULATION. BECAUSE THE LOCAL POPULATION WILL QUICKLY MAKE YOU UNDERSTAND THAT YOU’VE ACTED UNLAWFULLY IN THEIR MINDS AGAINST THEM. BUT CRITICALLY IMPORTANT FOR US IS THEY ARE OUR MAJOR SOURCE OF BATTLEFIELD INTELLIGENCE OR BATTLEFIELD INFORMATION. NOT SURE IF THAT ANSWERED THE QUESTION.>>YES, THANK YOU.>>I APOLOGIZE. I’M SLIGHTLY DEAF. SO I HAVE A HARD TIME HEARING ALL THE TIME.>>YOU HAD TALKED ABOUT SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PROGRAMS FOR THE PRIVATE COMPANIES. CAN YOU GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT THAT TYPE OF PROGRAM WOULD LOOK LIKE AND WHAT IT WOULD ENTAIL? . >>CAN THAT PLEASE BE REPEATED, EDDIE?>>SORRY. YOU TALKED ABOUT SOCIAL RESUMMONSABILITY PROGRAM — RESPONSIBILITY PROGRAMS FOR THE PRIVATE COMPANIES, CAN YOU GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT THAT TYPE OF PROGRAM WOULD ENTAIL?>>YES, WE SET UP MEDICAL CLINICS, WHICH ARE STAFFED BY OUR MEDICS. THE MEDICINE WE OBTAINED USUALLY FROM HOSPITALS THAT ARE DONATED TO US THAT WE FLY INTO THOSE AREAS WITH PURIFIED WATER IN ORDER TO BRING DOWN THE POSSIBILITY OF WATER-BORNE DISEASES WITH THE PEOPLE WHO FEED OFF POSSIBLY A RIVER OR A WELL. I THINK THAT’S IMPORTANT THINGS TO PEOPLE. I ALSO KNOW THAT IF THEY HAVE A PROBLEM IN TERMS OF, FOR EXAMPLE, IN EMPLOYMENT AND WE ARE DEPLOYED IN AN AREA, WE WILL DEPLOY LOCAL PEOPLE TO ASSIST US. OBVIOUSLY, THEY WILL BE MONITORED TO MAKE SURE THAT THEY DO NOT — THAT THEY ARE TO GIVE INTELLIGENCE TO THE BAD GUYS. BUT WE WILL ALSO MAKE AN EFFORT TO EMPLOY PEOPLE AS CHEFS, POSSIBLY AND THE VEHICLES IN ORDER TO LET THEM OWN SOMETHING. WE’RE NOT IN THE HABIT OF JUST GIVING. WHEN IT COMES TO EMPLOYING PEOPLE. WE WANT THEM TO DO A JOB BEFORE THEY GET PAID. BUT THAT SAID, WE MERELY LOOK AT WATER AND MEDICAL CLINICS.>>THANK YOU VERY MUCH, I WOULD LIKE TO ASK PROBABLY THE LAST QUESTION FOR THIS SESSION. IT’S A BIT PROVOCATIVE. I WANT YOU TO COMMENT ON THE FOLLOWING FACT — HOW DO YOU SEE THE INTERVENTION OF THIS IN TERMS OF FUNCTIONALITY. WHETHER YOU SEE THEM AS QUICK FIXES TO END CERTAIN CRISES OR THE LASTING SOLUTIONS? IN ESSENCE, YOU’RE GIVING AN EXAMPLE WITH BOKO HAREM. AND I REMEMBER THAT ENDING THAT BOKO HAREM HAS OCCURRED. PLEASE COMMENT ON THE FUNCTIONALITY, A QUICK FIX OR A LASTING SOLUTION, THANK YOU?>>I THINK ULTIMATELY THAT’S GOING TO DEPEND ON THE GOVERNMENT. WHERE THESE HAVE BECOME LASTING SOLUTIONS WAS FOR EXAMPLE, IN HERE IN SIERRA LEON. AS WE LOOK AT EXAMPLE BOKO HAREM, THE INTELLIGENCE GIVEN TO THE GOVERNMENT, THE PREDICTIONS THAT WERE MADE WERE IGNORED. ONCE THOSE BECAME IGNORED, BOKO HAREM WAS GIVEN THE OPPORTUNITY TO REORGANIZE, ARM THEMSELVES, AND CONTINUE WITH THE OFFENSIVE. ULTIMATELY, HOWEVER, THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANY CAN ONLY PLAY A ROLE IN CREATING A CONDITION OF PEACE OR A CONDITION IN WHICH CAN BE NEGOTIATED. BUT THE — THE END RESULT IS GOING TO BE DETERMINED BY THE GOVERNMENT. AND NOT THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANY. BUT THE REALITY OF IS IT IS THAT THESE ENEMIES CAN BE DEFEATED. IT DOESN’T TAKE ROCKET SCIENCE TO DO IT. BUT ULTIMATELY, GOVERNMENTS NEED TO STEP IN AND TAKE OVER BECAUSE TIME FOR ENDING MILITARY ACTION COMES. MY CONCERN IS MANY PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES WANT TO PROLONG THAT PERIOD.>>THANK YOU. IT’S TIME, WE’LL END IT HERE. I’LL TURN IT OVER TO EDDIE FOR A LITTLE PRESENTATION HERE.>>EEBEN THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR INFORMATIVE TALK. WE APPRECIATE YOUR TIME. AND SINCE YOU AREN’T HERE PHYSICALLY, WE HAVE A GIFT FOR YOU FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH GEORGIA THROUGH THE INSTITUTE OF LEADERSHIP AND STRATEGIC STUDIES. I’M GOING TO HAND THIS GIFT OVER TO TAKE WITH YOU. HOPEFULLY HE DOESN’T LOSE IT IN HIS SUITCASE ALONG THE WAY WHEN HE GOES TO SOUTH AFRICA, HE’LL MAKE SURE YOU GET THIS. THANK YOU.>>THANK YOU VERY MUCH. [ APPLAUSE ]>>WE’RE GOING TO SIGN YOU OFF NOW, EEBEN.>>AND I’LL BE WATCHING YOU, ORRVILLE.>>NOT HARD TO SEE.>>OKAY, SO OUR NEXT EVENT WILL BE AT 9:45, A PANEL PRESENTATION. SO THAT’S 15 MINUTES FROM NOW. IF YOU CAN BE IN YOUR SEATS ON TIME, THAT WOULD HELP VERY MUCH, THANK YOU. DON’T FORGET INTERNATIONAL CADETS WHO ARE PRESENTING POSTERS, GO AHEAD AND POST YOURSELF BY YOUR POSTERS. AND IF YOU CAN MAKE WAY OVER THERE TO SEE HIM, THAT’S GREAT. . SO, WELCOME BACK. WE ARE NOW GOING TO LISTEN TO OUR FIRST PANEL. AND THE THEME HERE IS INFERENCES IN — INFLUENCES IN FOREIGN POLICY. WE HAVE DR. DAN PAPP. BUT I WOULD LIKE TO INTRODUCE TO YOU THE MODERATOR FROM THIS PANEL. DR. DANIEL PAPP, A CONSULTANT OF THE PENDLETON GROUP & SCHOLAR OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND POLICY AND FORMER PRESIDENT OF KEN SAW STATE UNIVERSITY. DR. PAPP RETIRED AS PRESIDENT OF THE KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY IN 2016. BEFORE BECOMING PRESIDENT, HE WAS THE VICE CHANCELLOR FOR ACADEMICS AND FISCAL AFFAIRS OF THE SYSTEM OF GEORGIA. HE WAS INTERIM PRESIDENT OF SOUTHERN POLYTECHNIC AND EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT OF GEORGIA TECH AND HE’S THE DIRECTOR OF SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS. DR. PAPP HAS BEEN ONE SUCH SCHOLAR FOR AEROSPACE DOCTRINE OF THE COTTAGE IN STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE OF THE ARMY COLLEGE. THE ARMY TWICE AWARDED HIM THE OUTSTANDING CIVILIAN SERVICE MEDTAL. HE’S BEEN A VISITING PROFESSOR INSTITUTE IN PASS, IN SHANGHAI, AND LED STUDY PROGRAMS TO THE SOVIET UNION, FRANCE, GERMANY, AND ITALY. A GRADUATE AT DARTMOUTH, DR. PAPP HAS A PhD. FROM INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI. HE’S THE AUTHOR AND CO-AUTHOR OF MANY BOOKS AND ARTICLES ON FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS INCLUDING FORMER SECRETARY OF STATE DEAN RUSK’S AUTOBIOGRAPHY, “AS I SAW IT.” QUITE AN HONOR, DR. DAN PAPP. >>THANK YOU, EDDIE. GOOD MORNING, EVERYONE. WELCOME TO THE FIRST PANEL OF THE SYMPOSIUM ON PRIVATE MILITARY SECURITY COMPANIES INFLUENCE ON INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND FOREIGN POLICY. SPONSORED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH GEORGIA. OUR PANEL THIS MORNING IS ENTITLED INFLUENCES IN FOREIGN POLICY. WE HAVE FOUR SPEAKERS THAT ARE QUALIFIED AS PANELISTS AND PRACTITIONERS. THEIR INFORMATION IS IN OUR PROGRAM WHICH YOU ALL HAVE ACCESS TO. SOME OF YOU ARE LOOKING AT THEM RIGHT NOW. THIS MORNING, FOUR PRESENTATIONS ON U.S., SOUTH AFRICAN, AND RUSSIAN USES OF PMCs AND STATE EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES. WE HAVE 75 MINUTES THIS MORNING. FOR PANELIST PRESENTATIONS AND FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS. SO I’VE ASKED EACH PANELIST TO HOLD THEIR PRESENTATIONS TO NO MORE THAN 14 MINUTES. AND ALL FOUR OF THEM HAVE ALREADY COMPLAINED ABOUT THAT. BUT THAT’S LIFE. AT THE END OF THE PRESENTATIONS, WE SHOULD HAVE TIME FOR QUESTIONS AS WELL. LET’S MOVE TO OUR PANELISTS. THE FIRST PRESENTATION IS DR. MULLIGAN WHOSE PRESENTATION IS ENTITLED PRIVATIZING THE FORCES IN AFGHANISTAN, UNDERLYING ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION. DR. DUNNIGAN IS SENIOR POLITICAL SCIENTIST AND ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR AT THE DEFENSE AND POLITICAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT. SO LET ME TURN THE FORM IMMEDIATELY OVER TO MALLORY. MALLORY TAKE IT AWAY.>>OKAY. EVERYBODY CAN HEAR ME UP HERE? I BELIEVE I HAVE SLIDES. EDDIE, ARE WE GOING TO GET THOSE UP? OKAY, THANK YOU. THE BLUE ONE, RIGHT THERE. OKAY. PERFECT. THANK YOU. AS DR. PAPP SAID, I’LL BE SPEAKING ON PRIVATIZING THE FORCE IN AFGHANISTAN AND SOME UNDERLYING ISSUES WE NEED TO CONSIDER HERE. I’M GOING TO START WITH THE BACKGROUND ASSUMPTION BECAUSE I DO HAVE LIMITED TIME TODAY THAT EVERYBODY IS AWARE OF ISSUES AND PROPOSALS ON THE TABLE RELATED TO PRIVATIZING THE FORCES IN AFGHANISTAN. NOT GOING TO GO TO DEEP BACKGROUND BUT WE’LL GET TO THE QA IF FOLKS WOULD LIKE. I’LL SET OUT THE UNDERLYING DEFEAT THAT THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE STRONG RELIANCE ON CONTRACTORS IS NOT GOING TO DISSIPATE IN THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE. I HAVE A NUMBER OF REASONS WHY LISTED HERE ON THE SIDE. MOST IMPORTANTLY, CONTRACTORS ARE PART OF THE KEY ELEMENTS OF THE TRITOTAL FORCE FOR THE INTERNAL DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DOCTRINE. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONCEDES THE TOTAL FORCE IS THE MILITARY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CIVILIAN PERSONNEL AS WELL AS CONTRACTORS. SO CONTRACTORS ARE VERY UNLIKELY TO GO AWAY. HOWEVER, I DO THINK WE NEED TO BE SKEPTICAL AND THINK VERY CRITICALLY ABOUT ANY PROPOSALS THAT ARE PUT FORTH TO EXTENSIVELY PRIVATIZE ANY EXISTING CONFLICT PARTICULARLY ANY COUNTERINSURGENCY AS WE’RE FIGHTING IN AFGHANISTAN. GOING TO TRY TO TALK TO THREE POINTS TODAY. I WILL TRY TO RUSH THROUGH SOME OF THESE SINCE I DO ONLY HAVE 12 MINUTES LEFT. BUT FIRST WE’LL TALK ABOUT THE PERSONNEL FROM WHICH YOU CAN DRAW THE LABOR POOL TO PRIVATIZE THE FORCE. WHEN WE TALK ABOUT CONTRACTING IN STRATEGIC TERMS, WE OVERLOOK THE FACT OF WHO THE CONTRACTORS THEMSELVES AND ISSUES RELATED TO THE PERSONNEL THEMSELVES. I’LL TALK ABOUT THAT A LITTLE BIT. SECONDLY, WE’LL TALK ABOUT THE STRATEGIC ISSUES RELATED TO MILITARY EFFECTIVENESS AND WHAT I CALL CO-DEPLOYMENT OF PSCs AND MILITARY ALONG ONE ANOTHER IN THE FIELD. AND THIRD, I WANT TO GET TO SOME OF THE ISSUES WE’VE SEEN IN THE PAST WITH CONTRACTORS WORKING CONSISTENTLY IN A COUNTERINSURGENCY ENVIRONMENT. FIRST, GETTING TO THE LABOR POOL ISSUES. MY BIGGEST ARGUMENT HERE IS THAT THE STAFFING DOES MATTER AND IT RAISES A QUESTION FROM WHERE ARE WE GOING TO DRAW THE PERSONNEL THAT ARE PROPOSED TO BE PUT INTO AFGHANISTAN IN PLACE OF U.S. TROOPS IN THESE PROPOSALS? AS OF LAST MONTH, THERE WERE OVER 25,000 CONTRACTORS CURRENTLY WORKING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE IN AFGHANISTAN. THEY WORK ACROSS A VARIETY OF MISSION SETS, THE MAJORITY WORK IN LOGISTICS. BUT THERE ARE ABOUT 2500 ARMED SECURITY CONTRACTORS OPERATING IN IRAQ ALREADY. SECONDLY, IT’S IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT IN THAT CONTEXT, THE KEY POINTS IN THE IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN WARS PREVIOUSLY, THERE WERE ISSUES WITH VETTING OF CONTRACTORS BY THE FIRMS SO THEY LACKED THE VETTING STANDARDS TRYING TO GET CONTRACTORS QUICKLY. WHAT THAT MEANS WAS THEY POTENTIALLY HIRE MILITARY TROOPS WHO DID NOT HAVE SPECIAL OPERATIONS TRAINING OR FOLKS WHO HAD DISHONORABLE DISCHARGES FROM THE MILITARY. CITIZENSHIP MATTERS. HALF ARE NATIONALS BUT THE THIRD COUNTRY NATIONALS ARE ALSO THERE NOW. THIS IS DATA PULLED LAST MONTH. LOCAL NATIONALS ARE A SMALLER PROPORTION. NOW, IF YOU’RE AIMING TO HIRE U.S. CITIZENS WHERE THE SECURITY RISK IS GOING TO BE LOWEST, PRESUMABLY, YOU’RE GOING TO REACH A LIMITATION IN THE POOL OF PEOPLE AND THAT RAISES QUESTIONS ABOUT THE IMPACT ON MILITARY RETENTION OR FOLKS WHO ARE VERY HIGHLY QUALIFIED IN U.S. SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES GOING TO BE INCENTIVIZE TO LEAVE AND GO WORK FOR THE PRIVATE SECTOR INSTEAD. WHAT DOES THAT DO TO OUR MILITARY? SO JUST A QUESTION THAT NEEDS TO BE ADDRESSED. LOOKING AT NONU.S. CITIZENS, THERE ARE SECURITY RISKS THAT NEED TO GO WITH THAT AS WELL. THERE ARE UNADDRESSED CONTRACTOR HEALTH ISSUES THAT WE NEED TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT WITH THIS POPULATION. WE DID A STUDY AT RAND A COUPLE OF YEARS AGO LOOKING AT THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL POST DEPLOYMENT IN CONTRACTORS AND FOUND A LARGE PROPORTION OF CONTRACTORS WAS DEALING WITH UNADDRESSED HEALTH ISSUES AND IT WAS STIGMATIZED FOR THEM TO SEEK HELP. WHAT THIS MEANS IN PRACTICE IS THAT THEIR PRODUCTIVITY CAN BE HINDERED BECAUSE OF THAT. THAT RAISES THE QUESTION OF HOW EFFECTIVE WOULD THE FORCE BE OVER TIME. SECONDLY, GETTING TO THE ISSUE OF CONTRACTOR CO-DEPLOYMENT ALONGSIDE THE MILITARY. I’VE WRITTEN ON THIS ISSUE QUITE A BIT. I’VE SEEN THE REWARDS COMING OUT OF THINK TANKS SUCH AS GAO AND THE CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE ARGUING THAT CONTRACTORS THE ID NOT FALL UNDER A CLEAR COMMAND AND CONTROL STRUCTURE WITH THE U.S. MILITARY. THIS PROBABLY HAS IMPROVED. I’M TALK ABOUT THAT IN A COUPLE OF MINUTES. BUT ONE OF THE THINGS WE’RE SEEING IS FRIENDLY FIRE INCIDENTS BETWEEN CONTRACTORS AND THE MILITARY. THESE DATA WERE DRAWN FROM THE IRAQ WAR. THEY WERE PUT TOGETHER BY THE RECONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS CENTER AND LOOKING AT A YEAR AND A HALF TIME FRAME OVER THE 2004-2006 TIME FRAME. YOU CAN SEE THE LARGEST PROPORTION BETWEEN COALITION FORCES, PRIVATE SECURITY CONTRACTORS, AND IRAQI SECURITY FORCES WERE ACTUALLY COALITION FORCES FIRING ON PRIVATE SECURITY FORCES. THIS IS NOT TO SAY THAT PRIVATE SECURITY CONTRACTORS ARE NECESSARILY MORE VIOLENT. AS OPPOSED TO THE MILITARY. BUT WHAT IT DOES POINT TO IS COMMUNICATION ISSUES AND A LACK OF BEING ABLE TO CLEARLY IDENTIFY PRIVATE SECURITY CONTRACTORS IN THEATER. THIS IS A STUDY AT RAND. WE SURVEYED 150 U.S. TROOPS ACROSS THE SERVICES WHO HAD OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM EXPERIENCE INTERACTING WITH THE CONTRACTORS AND 20% OF THEM REPORTED THAT THEY HAD SOME FIRSTHAND KNOWLEDGE OF ARMED CONTRACTORS FAILING TO COORDINATE WITH THE MILITARY. IT IS IN TERMS OF HOW YOU’RE GOING TO LOOK AT THE FIGURE. IS THAT AN ACCEPTABLE FIGURE TO HAVE FIRSTHAND KNOWLEDGE OF SUCH EVENTS. IF YOU LOOK AT IT FROM THE VIEWPOINT THAT THE CONTRACTORS ARE THERE TO COMPLEMENT AND SUPPLEMENT MILITARY FORCES AND PROVIDE A SUPPORT TO MILITARY FORCES, THAT’S A TROUBLING FIGURE. SO THE TYPES OF BARRIERS TO FIELD COORDINATION THAT WE’VE SEEN. I’D LIKE TO BREAK THEM DOWN INTO TWO CATEGORIES, STRUCTURAL ISSUES AND IDENTITY ISSUES. THIS IS SORT OF A POLITICAL SCIENCE TERM FOR THOSE WHO ARE TAKING POLITICAL SCIENCE AND ARE AWARE OF THAT. BUT THEY’RE JUST MORE PERCEPTION ISSUES OF HOW CONTRACTORS IN THE MILITARY FACE EACH OTHER. AND WHEN I ARGUED IN MY WORK IS IF YOU GET THE STRUCTURAL ISSUES UNDER CONTROL, THE IDENTITY ISSUES THEY’LL BE LEARNING, THE TWO FORCES WILL LEARN HOW TO DEAL WITH EACH OTHER AND THE RESENTMENT WILL SOMEWHAT DISSIPATE. SO THE TYPES OF STRUCTURAL ISSUES THAT WE’VE SEEN BOTH IN IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN WERE PRIMARILY COMMUNICATION ISSUES. LACK OF DOCTRINE, LACK OF PREDEPLOYMENT, A LACK OF KNOWLEDGE IN LOCATIONS IN AN AOR, AND A FAILURE TO NOTIFY COMMANDERS ABOUT THEIR LOCATIONS AND THEIR MOVEMENT. IN TERMS OF IDENTITY ISSUES, WE SEE DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF CONTRACTORS THINKING THAT THE MILITARY IS CONVENTIONAL, SLOW, DISMISSIVE OF THEM. MILITARY SEES THE PFC AS DISRESPECTFUL. THERE’S A VARIETY OF THEM BUT SOME ARE MUCH MORE PROFESSIONAL OR SOME ARE PSEUDOMERCENARIES OR QUOTE/UNQUOTE, COWBOYS. THE OTHER THING I’M GOING TO NOTE THAT’S CRITICAL FOR THE NEXT SECTION OF THINGS IS PFCs IN THE MILITARY HAVE DIFFERENT MISSION SETS OR OVERALL GOALS. THE MILITARY IN THE COUNTERINSURGENCY HAS A STATED GOAL OF WINNING THE HEARTS AND MINDS OF CIVILIANS. PFCs, THE MORE NARROW GOAL IS FOR THE PERSONAL SECURITY DETAIL TEAMS OR CONVOY SECURITY. IT’S TO PROTECT THEIR PRINCIPLE. SOMETIMES IT LEADS TO STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES OR OPERATIONAL PRACTICES THAT WILL COUNTERACT THE OVERALL STRATEGIC GOAL OF THE MILITARY. SO I WOULD SAY A LOT OF DATA I SHOWED YOU IS A COUPLE OF YEARS OUTDATED AND THERE HAVE BEEN IMPROVEMENTED. IN 2014, JOINT DOCTRINE WAS CREATED ON SUPPORT. THEY ARE UPDATING THAT IN THE JOINT STAFF. ONE OF THE BIG WAYS THAT THEY’RE CAT GORIZING OPERATIONAL — CATEGORIZING OPERATIONAL SUPPORT IS INTEGRATION, A LOT OF THE THINGS I’VE JUST TALKED ABOUT. WE DO HAVE OTHER STRUCTURES IN PLACE THAT ARE IMPROVING THIS TYPE OF OPERATION CONTACT SUPPORT INTEGRATION CELLS AND THEY’VE INSTITUTED A LOT OF ON-LINE AND IN PERSON TRAININGS FOR D.O.D. PERSONNEL TO LEARN ABOUT CONTRACTORS AND HOW THEY CAN HELP TO COMPLEMENT AND SUPPLEMENT MILITARY FORCES. AND ALSO A LOT OF DEVELOPMENT OF BOARDS, BUREAUS, CENTERS, CELLS, AND WORKING GROUPS RELATED TO OPERATIONAL CONTRACT SUPPORT THAT DOD PERSONNEL CAN BE INVOLVED IN AND LEARN MORE ABOUT THIS. FINALLY WE WANT TO TALK ABOUT COUNTERINSURGENCY AND HOW CONTRACTORS CAN WORK AT ODDS WITH THE U.S. POLICY TO WIN THE HEARTS AND MINDS OF LOCALS. I ELUDED TO THIS HOW THE CONTRACTORS IN THE MILITARY HAVE DIFFERENT MISSION SETS AND CAN LEAD TO DIFFERENT OPERATIONAL PRACTICES. WHAT WE HAVE SEEN IN PRACTICE IS THAT THERE HAVE BEEN A NUMBER OF ABUSES PERPETRATED BY CONTRACTORS AND SOMETIMES THESE ARE ACTUAL DIRECT VIOLENT ABUSES, THOSE ARE FEWER AND FURTHER BETWEEN, BUT THEY ARE MEDIA HYPED EXAMPLES. BUT WE ALSO SEE YOU KNOW SORT OF NONSTANDARD THINGS LIKE EVASIVE DRIVING TECHNIQUES AND, FOR INSTANCE, THROWING WATER BOTTLES AND ASKED TO CLEAR LOCAL CIVILIANS. THESE ARE THINGS THAT CAN HELP CONTRACTORS TO PARTICULARLY SECURITY CONTRACTORS TO PROTECT THEIR PRINCIPLES, TO REACH THEIR STRATEGIC GOAL, BUT THEN CAN HAVE THIS UNINTENDED SECOND, THIRD, FOURTH ORDER OF FACT OF IMPACTING LOCAL CIVILIANS IN A NEGATIVE WAY. AND REALLY THE CRITICAL THING HERE IS WHETHER LOCAL CIVILIANS RELATE THOSE ACTIVITIES BACK TO THE U.S. INVASION OR THE U.S. INTERVENTION THERE AS A WHOLE. AND WE’VE SEEN THERE HAVE BEEN MULTIPLE QUOTES FROM LOCAL CIVI CIVILIANS OF BOTH AFGHANISTAN AND IRAQ SAYING THEY SEE CONTRACTORS AS PART OF THE U.S. COURSE. AND THIS IS BACKED UP AGAIN RELATED TO THE SAME PROJECT WHERE WE SURVEYED 150 MILITARY PERSONNEL WHO HAD EXPOSURE TO ARMED CONTRACTORS. WE SURVEYED NEARLY 800 STATE DEPARTMENT PERSONNEL WHO HAD EXPOSURE WHEN TO ARMED CONTRACTORS IN IRAQ. 1/5 OF THOSE HAD FIRSTHAND KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACTORS MISTREATING IRAQI CIVILIANS, HALF OF THOSE PERSONNEL THOUGHT PFCs DID NOT DISPLAY AN UNDERSTANDING OF SENSITIVITY AND 1/3 SAID THEY DID NOT RESPECT LOCAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAWS IN OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM. SO FINALLY, I WOULD LIKE TO LEAVE EVERYBODY BY SAYING I DO FEEL STRONGLY THAT POLICY MAKERS MUST ADDRESS THESE ISSUES IF PROPOSING TO OUTSOURCE SUBSTANTIAL ELEMENTS OF ANY EXISTING ARRANGEMENT SUCH AS WE HAVE IN AFGHANISTAN. I WELCOME YOUR QUESTIONS IN THE Q&A. THANKS. [ APPLAUSE ]>>THANK YOU, EXCELLENT JOB. OUR SECOND PRESENTATION WILL BE FROM MR. JOHAN RABB, A FORMER SPECIAL FORCES OPERATOR AND A PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTOR IN IRAQ. HE’S ALSO THE AUTHOR OF A BOOK “BLOOD MONEY, STORIES OF AN EX-REFUSE MISSION IN IRAQ.” THE PRESENTATION IS ENTITLED LESSONS LEARNED INTERACTING WITH THE U.S. MILITARY AND U.S. GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS AND HOW NONAMERICANS INTEGRATED WITH U.S. FORCES. JOHAN?>>THANK YOU. CAN EVERYBODY HEAR ME WELL. IF WE CAN JUST PULL UP MY PRESENTATION, PLEASE, EDDIE? ALL RIGHT. WORKING AS A PRIVATE MILITARY DIRECTOR FIRST IN AFRICA AND THEN IN THE MIDDLE EAST, THERE WERE LESSONS LEARNED ON THE GROUND. THE REASON I WROTE A BOOK ABOUT IT, IT’S A SECRETIVE BUSINESS IN THE PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTING CIRCLES. IT DOESN’T NEED TO BE. IF YOU — IF YOU FOLLOWED YOUR GUIDELINES, IF YOU WROTE IN LEGITIMATE CONTRACTS, IF YOU WERE CONTACTED BY REPUTABLE COMPANIES, THERE’S NOT MUCH TO HIDE. SO BACK IN SOUTH AFRICA, IT ‘S PEOPLE WILL ASK YOU WHAT YOU DO IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND IRAQ. YOU SAY SECURITY. WHAT KIND OF SECURITY? WELL, WE PROTECT PEOPLE, CONVOYS, INSTALLATIONS. THAT’S THE END OF THE STORY. NOBODY KNOWS HOW WE DID IT, HOW WE LIVED DAY-TO-DAY, HOW WE WENT WITH THE U.S. MILITARY, HOW WE INTEGRATED WITH THE FORCES OF IRAQ, THE LOCAL NATIONALS. I DECIDED TO WRITE A BOOK ABOUT IT. AND BASED ON THAT, I WOULD LIKE TO SHARE SOME EXPERIENCES WITH YOU. IN THE 2003 IN THE IRAQ AND PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTORS, WE USED AND SOUTH AFRICANS SPECIFICALLY EARLY ON IN THE GAME AS FROM APRIL, MAY, JUNE OF 2003, REMEMBER, THE GROUND WAR CONCLUDED IN APRIL, MARCH — APRIL OF 2003, AND THEN SHORTLY THERE AFTER, SOUTH AFRICANS GOT INVOLVED AND OTHER PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD. SO I’VE GOT A COUPLE OF PHOTOS HERE JUST TO INDICATE TO YOU THAT THE OPERATION THAT WE ENJOYED WITH THE U.S. FORCES AND WITH OTHER FORCES. WE COULDN’T DO ANYTHING OR WORK IN IRAQ IF WE DIDN’T WORK WITH THE U.S. MILITARY FORCES BECAUSE EVERYTHING IS SUBJECT TO THEIR APPROVAL AND ALL YOUR WORK HAD TO BE WITHIN CERTAIN GUIDELINES. SO THESE ARE JUST PHOTOS FROM THE ERA IN IRAQ THAT WE GOT FROM SOLDIERS THAT I TOOK JUST INDICATING THE LEVEL OF COOPERATION THAT WE HAD TO UNDERGO WITH THE U.S. MILITARY IN PARTICULAR AND ALSO OTHER COALITION FORCES. WE ALSO, YOU KNOW, WHEN I DID MY RESEARCH IN MY BOOK, WE SUSTAINED LOSSES. WE HAD A LOT OF PEOPLE KILLED, ALMOST 40 SOUTH AFRICANS GOT KILLED. AND FUNNY ENOUGH, WHEN I RESEARCHED MY BOOK, THERE WAS ONLY TWO SOURCES ON-LINE THAT INDICATED THE AMOUNT OF SOUTH AFRICANS KILLED IN THE IRAQI CIRCLES. ONE SOURCE, WIKIPEDIA, ADDED 19 GUYS, AND CASUALTIES.ORG HAD IT AT 21. BUT ACTUALLY 39 SOUTH AFRICANS GOT KILLED IN IRAQ. IT SHOWS YOU THE LEVEL OF — THE POPULATION IS NOT INFORMED ABOUT WHAT EXACTLY WENT DOWN HERE. BUT BECAUSE OF THE SECRETIVE NATURE OF OUR BUSINESS, NOBODY TALKS ABOUT IT, NOBODY WANTS TO ADMIT, NOBODY WANTS TO SAY WHAT HAPPENED. BUT NONETHELESS, WE BLED THE SAME AS THE U.S. MILITARY. AND I WILL GET TO THIS — THIS IS LATER. SO QUITE A LOT OF MILITARY CONTRACTORS THAT GOT KILLED IN IRAQ AND THEY NEVER GOT ANY RECOGNITION FOR THE WORK BEING DONE. THEY TRIPPED — IT’S ALL BEEN SWEPT UNDER THE CARPET. NOBODY WANTS TO TALK ABOUT IT. THIS IS THE LEVEL OF COOPERATION WITH THE U.S. MILITARY. WHY THE USE OF MILITARY CONTRACTORS. THIS IS AN EXCERPT FROM MY BOOK. BUT BASICALLY PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTING BLOSSOMED AFTER 9/11 AFTER THE INCIDENT WITH THE TWIN TOWERS. FIRST AFGHANISTAN IN A SMALLER WAY, AND THEN IRAQ. IN THE IRAQ, THE MILITARY CONTRACTING BOOMED. AND I WOULD SAY THAT’S IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM FOR MILITARY CONTRACTING. AT THE HEIGHT OF THE EFFORT IN IRAQ IN 2006-2007, THERE WERE APPROXIMATELY 50,000 PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTORS IN IRAQ WORKING SECURITY. AND IT CONSISTED OF MANY NATIONS. WE WILL GET TO SOME STATISTICS LATER. ONE THING TO REMEMBER IS THAT IT’S A CLEAN AND NEAT SOLUTION FOR ANY GOVERNMENT TO USE PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTORS. FIRST OF ALL, YOU SAVE MONEY BECAUSE YOU DON’T HAVE THESE GUYS PERMANENTLY ON YOUR BOOKS. YOU DON’T HAVE TO GIVE THEM PENSION, YOU DON’T HAVE TO GIVE THEM MEDICAL AID, YOU DON’T HAVE TO GIVE THEM HOUSING. AND ONCE A CONTRACT IS DONE, THEY’RE OFF OF THE BOOKS, YOU DON’T HAVE TO KEEP THEM IN YOUR MILITARY EMPLOYED. BUT THE OTHER REASON WAS WE FOUND IN THE IRAQ IS BECAUSE OF AFGHANISTAN, ANTI-IRAQ — THE WAR ON TERROR, A LOT OF THE U.S. MILITARY RESOURCES WAS TAKEN UP. AND FOR THEM TO GUARD INSTALLATIONS, YOU KNOW, POWER STATIONS, AIRPORTS, TO ESCORT CONVOYS WAS ACTUALLY IN A WAY A TO FIGHT AL QAEDA. SO BY CONTRACTING MILITARY COMPANIES, IT FREED A LOT OF COMBAT SOLDIERS FROM ROLES THAT ARE DISPUTABLE. IS IT IN A COMBAT’S SOLDIER’S INTEREST OR MILITARY’S INTEREST TO DEPLOY A COMBAT SOLDIER AT THE AIRPORT STANDING GUARD AT A POWER STATION? THOSE JOBS WERE TAKEN UP BY PRIVATE CONTRACTORS TO FREE UP MILITARY. THE FIRST SOUTH AFRICANS THAT WENT TO IRAQ IN THE MIDDLE OF 2003 LOOKED AFTER GENERAL JAMES GARNER. HE WAS INVOLVED WITH THE COALITION, THE CPA, THE PROVISIONAL AUTHORITY THAT RAN IRAQ IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE IRAQIS AT THE TIME. AND THEY STARTED TO TRAIN THE MILITARY AND THE S.W.A.T. POLICE UNITS. AND BECAUSE OF OUR BACKGROUND IN AFRICA WORKING AS PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTORS, A LOT OF SOUTH AFRICANS WAS CONTRACTED TO GUARD. NOW, YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER THE COALITION FORCES IN IRAQ CONSISTED MAINLY AFTER FIVE HIGHEST NATIONS, THE U.S., CANADA, THE UK, AUSTRALIA, AND NEW ZEALAND. AT A FEW OTHER COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED LIKE POLAND AND SO ON AND SO FORTH. SO EDUCATE NOW, THE OFFICIAL INTEREST IN IRAQ. A LOT OF PEOPLE NOW DIDN’T EVEN KNOW WHERE IT WAS. BUT BECAUSE OF OUR HISTORY IN AFRICA AND EARLIER SPOKE ABOUT THE EXECUTIVE OUTCOMES AND THE WORK WE’VE DONE, WE GOT CONTRACTED TO GO, WHICH IS A THEATER NOW KEPT AND A LOT OF GUYS FOUND EMPLOYMENT AFTER THEY GOT LAID OFF IN THE MILITARY IN THE ’90s. THERE WAS POLITICAL CHANGE IN OUR COUNTRY AND A LOT OF GUYS GOT LAID OFF, THEY GOT SMALL PENSIONS AND THE IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN WARS CAME AT THE RIGHT TIME FOR THESE GUYS TO BE DEPLOYED TO FIND SUFFICIENT AND PROPER INCOME SOURCES. THE SOUTH AFRICAN PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTORS MANAGED TO OBTAIN U.S. EMBASSY IF YOU WORKED ON U.S. GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS. WE MANAGED TO GET DOD AS YOU CALL IT. WE HAD INTRODUCTION. WE COULD USE MILITARY AIRCRAFT. WE WERE TREATED IN THE COMBAT HOSPITALS. IF WOUNDED, YOU COULD GET MEDICAL EVACUATION. SO THAT WAS — THAT WAS HOW WE INTEGRATED WITH THE U.S. MILITARY. WE SHARED THE DEFECTS WITH THEM, WE AIDED THE DEFECTS. WE GOT TO MAKE FRIENDS WITH THEM AND WE GOT TO, YOU KNOW, WORK IN AND AROUND U.S. MILITARY SOURCES. AND I PERSONALLY ENJOYED IT A LOT. BUT THERE WAS ALSO A LOT OF ANIMOSITY BETWEEN A LOT OF THE CONTRACTORS, NOT ONLY SOUTH AFRICANS, BUT INTERNATIONAL CONTRACTORS AND THE MILITARY. WE ARE MOSTLY ALL EX-MILITARY MEN. AND WE UNDERSTAND THEM. BUT I DON’T THINK THE SOLDIERS UNDERSTAND. WHY DID YOU LEAVE THE MILITARY? WHY ARE YOU NOT IN THE MILITARY? YOU’RE DOING IT FOR FINANCIAL GAIN. SO THERE’S A LITTLE BIT OF MISUNDERSTANDING INITIALLY. BUT THAT WAS BRIEF. SO, SECURITY MANAGERS ANALYZE DIRECTLY WITH U.S. FORCES. WE HAVE TO WORK WITH THE COALITION PROVISIONAL AUTHORITY AND, IN OUR CASE, WE HAVE TO WORKLE WITH THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS QUITE EXTENSIVELY. IN THE EARLY YEARS, NONE OF THE CONTRACTS WERE AWARDED, THE DECONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS WHERE DO YOU LIVED BE FUNDED BY THE USG IF THE SECURITY PLAN WAS NOT GOOD ENOUGH. BUT YOU HAVE TO COME UP WITH A SECURITY PLAN AS A PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTING ENTITY THAT WILL BE DEEMED GOOD ENOUGH BY THE U.S. GOVERNMENT TO RELEASE THE FUNDING FOR THE PROJECT. SO WE ANALYZED A LOT OF THEM. ONE EXAMPLE THAT I CAN USE THAT I LEARNED A LOT WAS WE WERE AWARDED THE CONTRACT IN EAST RAMADI IN IRAQ. AT THE TIME, NO PRIVATE CONTRACTORS WERE GOING TO EAST RAMADI, JUST TOO DANGEROUS. WE AVOIDED THE CONTRACT. SO IRAQ WAS TOO DANGEROUS AT THE TIME. WE CAME ONE A PLAN TO TAKE THE KEY ENGINEERS AND PERSONNEL IN A PRIVATE PLANE, A LITTLE PAIN, A PCC TAIL DRAG TEAR. AT THE TIME THE AIR SPACE IN IRAQ WAS CONTROLLED BY THE U.S. AIR FORCE, THERE WAS A FEW EXCEPTIONS IN BAGHDAD WITH THE FEW OTHER PEOPLE COULD BE FLOWN IN HELICOPTERS IN THE AIRCRAFT. AFTER 9/11, EVERYBODY WAS SKEPTICAL OF PRIVATE AIRCRAFT. WE WERE THE FIRST GUYS TO BE ABLE TO PUT PEOPLE ON THE GROUND BY USING A SMALL AIRCRAFT. BUT, IN THIS PROCESS, I ANALYZED WHAT THE U.S. AIR FORCE, THE U.S. MILITARY, AND WHERE TO WORK AND WHAT I LEARNED WAS THERE WERE BATTLE SPACES — BATTLE SPACES BETWEEN BAGHDAD AND RAMADI AND THERE WERE UNITS IN CHARGE OF THE BATTLE SPACES. SO YOU HAD TO ALLY WITH SO MANY PEOPLE BECAUSE THERE’S COMBAT ACTIVITY GOING ON. THEY HAD TO STOP THEIR COMBAT ACTIVITY FOR YOU TO PASS THE BATTLE SPACE. IT WAS EXTENSIVE EXERCISE. AND I COULD SEE THAT SOME OF THE U.S. MILITARY FOLKS WASN’T REALLY KEEN ON ALLOWING A PRIVATE PLANE FLYING IN THEIR BATTLE SPACE. YOU HAVE TO SIT DOWN, YOU HAVE TO EXPLAIN TO THEM EXACTLY WHAT YOU WERE GOING TO DO. IN THIS CASE, WE WERE GOING TO BUILD A NEW IRAQI MILITARY BASE THAT WAS IN THE VICINITY OF WHERE THERE WAS OTHER U.S. MILITARY BASES ALREADY. AND ONCE YOU EXPLAINED YOUR MISSION TO THEM — AND THIS IS WHERE COMMUNICATION — I THINK COMMUNICATION IS REALLY IMPORTANT BETWEEN PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES AND CONTRACTORS AND THE U.S. MILITARY, FOR EXAMPLE YOU KNOW, EARLY ON, WE ARRIVED WITHOUT ANYBODY AND PEOPLE ARE SKEPTICAL TO TALK. YOU HAVE TO TALK. YOU HAVE TO SIT AROUND THE TABLE AND EXPLAIN TO THEM YOUR MISSION, EXPLAIN TO THEM WHY YOU ARE HERE. AND THEN YOU START AND ONCE THEY UNDERSTAND IT, THEY ARE QUITE WILLING TO HELP YOU AND TO ASSIST YOU. LET’S MOVE FORWARD TO LESSONS LEARNED. MANY MILITARY PEOPLE DON’T LIKE PMC’S AND VICE VERSA FOR SOME REASON. THEY THINK WE’RE TAKING JOBS THAT THE MILITARY SHOULD BE DOING. WE’VE BEEN THERE, DONE THAT, WE HAVE A BIGGER SALARY THAN THE GUYS IN UNIFORM NOW. YOU HAVE A DIFFERENT ATTITUDE THAN GUYS IN THE UNIFORM. THAT’S WHAT I LEARNED ON THE GROUND. A LOT OF THIS IS BREACHED AS THE YEARS GO BY. THE BASELINE FOR US TO FORM THE BOND WITH THE U.S. MILITARY IS TO SHARE INTELLIGENCE. NOW, REMEMBER, WE HAVE THE IRAQIS WORK FOR US LOCAL NATIONALS A LOT. AND THE U.S. MILITARY HAD SOME IRAQIS WORK FOR THE U.S. INTERPRETERS AND INFORMERS. BUT BECAUSE WE HAD DEALINGS WITH THE LOCAL POPULATION AND MOST OF OUR FORCES WERE LOCAL POPULATION, IT WAS IMPORTANT TO LEARN FROM THEM WHAT IS HAPPENING WITHIN THEIR AREA AND WE PICKED UP A LOT. AND WE SHARED THIS INTEL WITH THE U.S. MILITARY. AND THAT OPENED A LOT OF DOORS. SO, I THINK ON THE HUMAN INTELLIGENCE, PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTORS CAN REALLY CONTRIBUTE A LOT BY EXPLOITING THE LOCAL NATIONALS THEY WORK WITH IN EXCHANGING PERSONNEL WITH — EXCHANGING INTEL WITH THE MILITARY FOLKS. IN 2005, A COMPANY ESTABLISHED IN BAGHDAD AND THEN ALL OVER IRAQ. THE IDEA OF IRAQ WAS TO EASILY OR MORE EASE APPROXIMATELY INTEGRATE AND SHARE INTELLIGENCE BETWEEN MILITARY FOLKS, COALITION FORCES, AND PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTORS. SO THEY SAW THE NEED OF ESTABLISHING A WAY IDEAS COULD BE EXCHANGED, INTELLIGENCE COULD BE EXCHANGED AND YOUR MOVEMENTS HAD TO BE COORDINATED SO THERE’S NO BLUE-ON-BLUE AND SCENTS LIKE THAT. SO THAT WORKED WELL. I HAVE, IN MY SLIDE SHOW WHICH WILL BE AVAILABLE AFTERWARDS, FINALLY I WANT TO USE THIS EXAMPLE. WE WERE IN IRAQ IN 2015. WE HEARD WHAT GOOD WORK THEY DID. AND I BELIEVE THAT IT IS FOR ALL FOR PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTING AND PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTORS TO WORK IN CONJUNCTION WITH FORCES LIKE THE U.S. FORCES OR FORCES ALL OVER THE WORLD TO SERVE AS FORCE MULTIPLIERS TO WORK AS ME TORS, TO WORK AS TRAINERS. BUT IT HAS TO BE — THE PROBLEM WAS IN THE BEGINNING, THERE WASN’T ENOUGH CLEAR GUIDELINES ON THE REGULATIONS ON WHAT YOU CAN DO AND HOW YOU CAN DO IT. SO THERE MUST BE CLEAR GUIDELINES AND THEY ALSO NEED TO BE MORE — THE CRITERIA OF GETTING YOUR PMCs INVOLVED. SO YOUR RECRUITMENT CRITERIA I THINK NEED TO BE A LITTLE BIT MORE INVOLVED. A LOT OF THE PROBLEMS HAVE SORTED ITSELF OUT OVER THE YEARS. IN THE BEGINNING, THERE WAS A PROBLEM. THANK YOU, ANY QUESTIONS?>>WE’LL TAKE ALL OF THE QUESTIONS LATER. THANK YOU VERY MUCH. [ APPLAUSE ]>>THANK YOU. . >>OUR THIRD PRESENTATION WILL BE BY DR. ESTHERHOUSE, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF STRATEGY IN THE FACULTY OF MILITARY SCIENCES AT THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY ACADEMY. HIS PRESENTATION IS ENTITLED FROM SUPPLY TO DEMAND, SOUTH AFRICA AND PRIVATE SECURITY. PAVEL?>>MY APPROACH WOULD BE TO COMMUNICATE AS MUCH INFORMATION AS POSSIBLE BY THE SLIDES BECAUSE I’M SPEAKING SLOWLY AND I ONLY HAVE 15 MINUTES?>>14.>>14. OKAY. I WANT TO DO THREE THINGS. I WANT TO CONTEXTUALIZE SOUTH AFRICAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE MILITARY INDUSTRY AND THEN TALK ABOUT THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES AND HOW SOUTH AFRICA GOT INVOLVED FROM A FOREIGN POLICY PERSPECTIVE. THEY LOOKED AT A PRIVATE INDUSTRY. I MEAN JUST THROUGH THE PRESENTATION, IT’S QUITE CLEAR THAT SOUTH AFRICA HAS BEEN DEEPLY INVOLVED IN THE KEY ROLE PLAYING IN THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY SINCE THE EARLY ’90s. IT IS, OF COURSE, REFLECTING THE REALITIES TO LARGE EXTENT OF WHAT HAPPENED IN OUR OWN SOCIETY AND OUR OWN COUNTRY SINCE THE EARLY 1990s AS PART OF THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS. AN IMPORTANT POINT TO MAKE HERE IS THAT OUR GOVERNMENT HAS NOT BEEN INVOLVED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OR THE ROLLOUT OF THE PRIVATE SECURITY OR PRIVATE MILITARY INDUSTRY. IF YOU LOOK AT THE DRIVER, WHAT I WANT TO CALL THE PUSH AND THE PULL FACTORS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIVATE INDUSTRY SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA, VERY LITTLE OF IT HAS TO DO WITH THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT. IT IS ROOTED IN CHANGES IN THE WARD IN GENERAL, CHANGES IN OUR OWN COUNTRY IN PARTICULAR. AND I WANT TO HIGHLIGHT ONE PARTICULAR ASPECT. BECAUSE THE OTHERS ARE RELATIVELY WELL COVERED IN THE LITERATURE ON PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. BUT THE ONE ASPECT THAT I FOUND NOT VERY WELL COVERED IN THE LITERATURE IS THE REALITY INSIDE OUR OWN COUNTRY. HOW THE GOVERNMENT’S ACCEPTANCE OF HUMAN SECURITY AS AN ORGANIZING FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING SECURITY, PLUS THE REALITIES OF THE DEMILITARIZATION OF OUR SOCIETIES IN THE EARLY 1990s PLUS THE REALITY OF A CULTURAL VIOLENCE IN OUR SOCIETY CREATED TO SORT OF A VOID IN WHICH PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRIES SORT OF STARTED TO DEVELOP. IT’S QUITE INTERESTING FROM THE LEGISLATIVE PERSPECTIVE AND FROM A GOVERNMENT PERSPECTIVE. THERE’S A CLEAR LINE OF DEMARCATION, A CLEAR DIFFERENCE IN SOUTH AFRICA BETWEEN WHAT THEY REFER TO AS THE PRIVATE MILITARY INDUSTRY AND THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. OF COURSE, HE LOOKED AT THE PRIVATE MILITARY INDUSTRY, SEEMING TWO WAYS. FIRSTLY, IT’S SORT OF THIS CRY WHAT THE COMPANIES ARE. IN OTHER WORDS, THAT THEY ARE PREDOMINANTLY OF A MILITARY NATURE THAT THEY’RE DOING OFFENSIVE-TYPES OF WORK THAT’S WHAT THEY ARE. AND THEN SECONDLY, WHAT THEY DO IN TERMS OF MILITARY WORK IN PARTICULAR. IF YOU LOOK AT THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY, IT IS SORT OF DEFINED IN TERMS OF THE DOMESTIC ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR ROLE IN LAW AND ORDER ALMOST WITH THE DEFENSIVE TYPE OF WORK. SO THERE’S A CLEAR SORT OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HOW IT IS SEEN. LET ME TURN TO THE PRIVATE MILITARY INDUSTRY IN THE FIRST INCIDENT. OF COURSE, IT’S QUITE CLEAR, I THINK YOU’VE PICKED IT UP FROM JOHAN AND EEBEN’S PRESENTATION THIS MORNING, SOUTH AFRICA HAS BEEN HEAVILY INVOLVED IN PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES OUTSIDE OF AFRICA, BUT ALSO PREDOMINANTLY IN PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES INSIDE AFRICA. AND TO CONTEXTUALIZE OUR INVOLVEMENT IN — IN THE AFRICA, I THINK IT IS IMPORTANT TO — IMPORTANT TO TRI-HANG LATE THREE ISSUES. THE FIRST IS THE NATURE OF AFRICAN SECURITY, THE SECOND IS AFRICAN ARMOR AND THIRDLY THE PRIVATE SECURITY AND PRIVATE MILITARY INDUSTRY. LET ME SAY TWO THINGS ABOUT THE AFRICAN SECURITY. THE FIRST IS THE AFRICAN SECURITY — AFRICA IS SITTING WITH AN INSECURITY PROBLEM. IT IS — WE DON’T HAVE TO DISCUSS THAT. IT’S QUITE OBVIOUS. BUT WHAT IS INTERESTING ABOUT AFRICAN SECURITY IF YOU LOOK AT IT IN THE LAST COUPLE OF YEARS IS THE RISE OF WHAT I WANT TO CALL STATE-BASED CONFLICTS IN AFRICA. PEOPLE TEND TO THINK OF CONFLICT PREDOMINANTLY IN TERMS OF INTERNAL CONFLICTS, WHICH IT IS. BUT GOVERNMENTS ARE INCLUSIVELY INVOLVED IN CONFLICTS AND IN PARTICULAR, IT’S FLOWING OVER BORDERS, IN OTHER WORDS, IT’S NOT INTERNAL TO THE EXTENT THAT IT’S TAKING PLACE IN ONE COUNTRY. THERE’S A REGIONAL SORT OF FLAVOR THESE DAYS. IF YOU THEN TURN TO AFRICAN MILITARIES, EEBEN SPOKE ABOUT IT THIS MORNING SO I WANT TO MAKE TWO POINTS ABOUT AFRICAN MILITARIES IN THE MOMENT. AFRICA IS UNDER MILITARIZED. SHOULD I SAY THAT AGAIN. AFRICA IS UNDERMILITARIZED. WE DON’T INVEST ENOUGH MONEY IN MILITARIZING OUR CONTINENT AND DEVELOPING PROFESSIONAL DEFENSE FORCES. AND IF YOU CREATE A VACUUM LIKE THAT, SOMEBODY IS GOING TO — SOME THING IS GOING TO FILL THAT VACUUM. SOMETIMES IT’S FILLED BY PRIVATE MILITARY COUNT COMPANIES, SOMETIMES IT’S FILLED BY REBELS. SOMEBODY IS GOING TO FILL THAT VOID. THE SECOND POINT I WANT TO MAKE ABOUT AFRICAN MILITARIES, IT CAME OUT IN EEBEN’S DISCUSSION, VERY OFTEN, THEY ARE WRONGLY ORGANIZED, TRAINED, AND EQUIPPED. THEY ARE NOT REALLY ALIGNED FOR WHAT THEY NEED TO DO IN ADDRESSING THE AFRICAN SECURITY ISSUE. LET ME TURN, THEN, TO THE THIRD ISSUE THAT PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES — IT’S QUITE INTERESTING THAT PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES, AND I SHOULD SAY SOUTH AFRICAN BASED PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES HAVE BEEN FAIRLY SUCCESSFUL IN AFRICA. WHICH IS LEAVES ONE WITH THE QUESTION, WHY? AND I CAN COME UP WITH A WHOLE RANGE OF EXPLANATIONS, BUT ONE THAT I HAVE FOUND QUITE INTERESTING, AND THAT EEBEN ALSO TOUCHED ON THIS MORNING IS THE DOCTRINE ISSUE. AND HOW PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES IN AFRICA UNDERSTAND AFRICA AND AGAIN CAN OPERATE WITH A REALISTIC DOCTRINE AND REALISTIC TRAINING. THAT’S THE FIRST POINT I WANT TO MAKE. THE SECOND POINT I THINK ONE NEEDS TO MAKE IS HOW FULLY. THIS IS SO INTERESTING IN THE RESEARCH AND IT’S QUITE SORT OF INTERESTING TO OBSERVE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES WORKING OUTSIDE AFRICA AND THOSE WORKING IN AFRICA. HOW PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES IN AFRICA ARE FULLY, FULLY INTEGRATED WITH THE MILITARIES THEY TRAIN, HOW FULLY THEY OPERATE WITH THE MILITARIES AND HOW THEY BECOME ALMOST PART OF THE MILITARIES THEY’RE WORKING WITH. I WANT TO HIGHLIGHT ONE OR TWO THINGS, THE FIRST IS TO DESCRIBE WHAT IS PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE. THE SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT DOES NOT REALLY LIKE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANY INVOLVEMENT IN AFRICA. SOMETIMES THEY USE IT. IT SERVES THEIR INTEREST. SOMETIMES THEY WILL GO AGAINST THESE COMPANIES. SO THAT’S THE FIRST POINT I WANT TO MAKE. THERE’S — THEY DON’T HAVE MUCH CONTROL OVER THESE COMPANIES. BUT THE SECOND POINT I WANT TO MAKE, AND THAT’S QUITE INTERESTING, IS THAT THESE COMPANIES ARE TO A LARGER EXTENT, A REFLECTION OF WHAT IS HAPPENING INSIDE THE COUNTRY. IT IS SORT OF DRIVEN BY DOMESTIC REALITIES MORE THAN FOREIGN RELATIONS AND FOREIGN REALITIES. GETTING PEOPLE THEY DON’T NECESSARILY LIKE, IT WAS QUITE INTERESTING HOW WE HAVEN’T DESCRIBED THAT, OUT OF THE COUNTRY GETTING THEM INVOLVED OUTSIDE OF THE COUNTRY BECAUSE THEY DON’T WANT TO BE INVOLVED INSIDE THE COUNTRY. TO A LARGER EXTENT THE DOMESTIC REALITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA. LET ME TURN TO THE SECOND PART OF MY DISCUSSION ON PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES AS THEY CALL IT AND WHAT I REFERRED TO AS SECURING THE SHOPPING MALL BECAUSE, YOU SEE, THESE PRIVATE SECURITY OPERATORS, IF YOU’RE GOING TO SHOPS ALL OVER THE PLACE. THE WHOLE SOUTH AFRICAN ECONOMY IS DEPENDENT ON THE PRIVATE SECURITY. I WONDER IF I SHOULD SAY THAT AGAIN. IT’S THE SECOND BIGGEST EMPLOYER IN SOUTH AFRICA. AND THAT IS SAYING A LOT ABOUT THE INDUSTRY. OF COURSE, IT IS ALSO SAYING A LOT ABOUT OUR SOCIETY. IT’S ALSO SAYING A LOT ABOUT SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA. IT’S SAYING A LOT ABOUT OUR POLICE SERVICES. IT IS SAYING A LOT ABOUT THE ECONOMIC REALITIES IN OUR SOCIETY. THIS SLIDE JUST GIVES US AN INDICATION OF WHERE IN SOUTH AFRICA THEY ARE PREDOMINANTLY INVOLVED. AND IT’S QUITE INTERESTING IF YOU LOOK AT THAT DEPLOYMENT, YOU CAN SEE IT’S PREDOMINANTLY THE NORTHERN PART OF SOUTH AFRICA THAT YOU FIND THESE COMPANIES INVOLVED. THERE’S THE KIND OF SERVICES THAT THEY RENDERED. LET ME SAY THIS. IT’S INTERESTING IF YOU LOOK AT THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY IN SOUTH AFRICA AND WHAT IT IS ACTUALLY SAYING ABOUT THE POLICE FORCE IN SOUTH AFRICA. POLICE WORK INVOLVES THE CONVENTION OF CRIME, THE INVESTIGATION OF CRIME, AND, OF COURSE, THE MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION. AND WHAT IS QUITE OBVIOUS IN SOUTH AFRICA IS THAT THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY FOR ALL PRACTICAL PURPOSES HAVE TAKEN OVER ALL THE PREVENTION OF CRIME ACTIVITIES. IN OTHER WORDS, THE POLICE ARE NOT INVOLVED IN THE PREVENTION OF CRIME ANYMORE. THAT HAS BEEN TAKEN OVER BY THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. THE POLICE ARE DOING PRIVATE INVESTIGATION, CRIME INVESTIGATION. BUT MORE AND MORE, EVEN THAT IS TAKEN OVER BY PRIVATE SECURITY AND INDUSTRY. AND, OF COURSE, THEY’RE ALSO INVOLVED IN THE CRIME INTELLIGENCE INCREASING. SO, IT IS MORE AND MORE A REFLECTION OF THE INABILITY OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT TO PROVIDE GOODS AND SERVICES TO ITS POPULATION THAT IT IS INCREASINGLY PRIVATIZED. I’M GOING TO CONCLUDE THERE. THANK YOU SO MUCH. [ APPLAUSE ]>>THANK YOU. WE WILL NOW MOVE FROM THE UNITED STATES AND SOUTH AFRICAN INVOLVEMENT IN PRIVATE MILITARY SECURITY COMPANIES TO RUSSIA. OUR FINAL PRESENTATION IS BY DR. CAROL ABROMOV, POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOW AT THE INTELLIGENCE STUDIES PROJECT AT THE LBJ SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN. DR. ABRAMOV’S PRESENTATION IS ENTITLED GRAY ZONE ADVENTURERS, THE USE OF PMFCs AND CONTEMPORARY RUSSIAN GLOBAL HYBRID WARFARE.>>THANK YOU VERY MUCH. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR HOSTING US. AND HAVING A DISCUSSION ON THOSE VERY IMPORTANT TOPICS THAT I BELIEVE SHOULD BE IN THE FOCUS OF THE SECURITY INDUSTRY BUT ALSO THEY’LL TRY TO PUT SOME PERSPECTIVE FROM THE INTEL SIDE OF THINGS. AND TODAY I WILL TRY TO ADVOCATE SEVERAL IDEAS AND, OF COURSE, HAVING IN MIND OUR TIME CONSTRAINTS, I’LL ALSO TRY TO RELIEVE MUCH INFORMATION FROM MY SLIDES AND HOPEFULLY IN THE Q&A SESSION WE’LL BE ABLE TO ANSWER. INTERESTING THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANY STEMS FROM MY UNDERSTANDING OF THEM AS BEING A VERY POWERFUL TOOL WITHIN A TOOL BOX IN THEIR DOCTRINE OF NONLINEAR WARFARE WHICH WE SEE ON THE RISE. AND THIS TODAY, I’LL TRY TO DEMONSTRATE AN EMERGENT TREND IN THE RUSSIAN PFCs OUTSIDE OF THE BORDERS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AS THEY ARE PART OF THE ARSENAL IN THE SO-CALLED HYBRID WARFARE. AND I WILL TRY TO ARGUE THAT THOSE ARE VERY POWERFUL TOOLS AND VERY ADAPTABLE TOOLS BETWEEN THE GREEN ZONE AND WAR. I WILL TRY TO ARGUE THAT — THE ADVANCED ARGUMENTS IN FRONT OF YOU THAT THE DEPLOYMENT AND SPECIFICALLY THE MOST NOTABLE ONE AND HERE I WOULD USE THE OPPORTUNITY TO CONGRATULATE THE CADETS AND THEIR WONDERFUL POSTERS, AT LEAST TWO OF THEM IN THE OTHER ROOM, ARE DEDICATED TO THE WAGNER AND OF COURSE WE’LL BE TALKING ABOUT WAGNER AMONG OTHER RUSSIAN COMPANIES. BUT I WILL TRY TO INDICATE IT’S A LASTING EXPERIMENT WITH A LASTING CONSEQUENCE. SOME OF THE SPEAKERS IN THE AFTERNOON AND TOMORROW WILL BE ALSO OF THE SAME PROBABLY WILL BE USING THE SAME LOGIC. I WILL WANT TO EXPLAIN THAT I ALSO THINK THAT THE RISE OF THOSE ACTORS, ESPECIALLY THE WESTERN ONE, SHOULD BE THE USE. THE NEXT BIG THING IS SOMETHING WE SHOULD BE WATCHING FOR. I WILL TRY TO INDICATE THE IDEA THAT WE SEE A VERY FAST IMPLICATION OF THE LEARNING CYCLE ON THE SIDE OF THE RUSSIANS, PRIVATE MILITARIES, THEY HAVE MIXED SUCCESS, THEY TRY TO FAIL CHEAP, FAIL FAST, AND MOVE FORWARD. SO WHAT IS THE CONTEXT? WELL, THE CONTEXT, OF COURSE, I WOULD LIKE ALSO TO TALK A LITTLE BIT OF THOSE WHEN I TALK ABOUT ADVENTURES, OF COURSE, I DON’T WANT TO TALK ABOUT IRRATIONAL ACTORS. I’M THINKING OF IT IN TERMS OF STRADDLING THE GREEN ZONE AND THE CONTEXT IN WHICH THEY OPERATE IS WITHIN THE RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY DOCKET RIB. — DOCTRINE. AND, OF COURSE, WHAT DOES REALLY RUSSIA WANT? OR WHAT DOES THE KREMLIN WANT IN THE INTERIM INTERNATIONAL SCENE. WELL, OBVIOUSLY IT PROMOTES SOME PRESSURES FOR WORLD ORDER WITH THE WESTERN HEDGEMONY. AND TO AVOID THE KREMLIN’S FACTOR ON THE GLOBAL STAGE, ONE THAT CANNOT BE OVERLOOKED ANYMORE. AND, OF COURSE, IT’S A TOOL THAT VERY WELL FITS WITHIN THIS DOCTRINE TO FORTIFY AND ADVANCE ENTRENCHED INTERESTS IN THE SPHERE OF INFLUENCE. BUT IT ALSO ALLOWS FOR OPPORTUNISTIC EXPLOITATION FOR WHAT I CALL GEOPOLITICAL GAPS IN CRISIS IN ORDER TO PROJECT THE POWER AND THE NEAR AND DISTANT THEATERS. WE CAN TALK ABOUT THE EASTERN UKRAINE, CRY M — CRIMEA, BUT AO WE CAN TALK ABOUT THE LATER DEPLOYMENTS OUTSIDE OF THE IMMEDIATE WORLD. SO WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE CONTEXT OF THE PMFC’S IN THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES IN THIS FOREIGN POLICY CONTEXT? AND WHY WOULD THIS COMPATIBILITY WORK? WELL, FIRST OF ALL, THEY ARE PLAUSIBLY DENIABLE INSTRUMENTS WITH RAPID DEPLOYMENTS AND THAT I’LL SEE AUGMENTATION OF THE FORCES ABROAD. IN THE CASE OF SYRIA. SYRIA FROM MY PERSPECTIVE IS PROBABLY THE PERFECT TESTING LAB FOR THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES OF THIS NEW KIND WITHIN THIS NOVELTY I WOULD SAY WITHIN THE RUSSIAN MILITARY DOCTRINE. ALSO, 245I ALLOW FOR A LIGHTER MILITARY FOOTPRINT AND ALSO WHAT WE CALL A HYBRID MILITARY — THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANY’S DEPLOYMENT MODEL. AND, OF COURSE, THE TWO OTHER FACTORS FROM INTERNAL POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE IS I BELIEVE ALSO VERY SPECIFIC TO THE APPLICATION AND THE PROJECTION. IT IS AN OUTLET FOR RELIEVING INTERNAL POLITICAL PRESSURE MOUNTING ON KREMLIN SPECIFICALLY IN SYRIA. IN ORDER TO — IN TIMES WHEN WE HAVE ALL KINDS OF REFORMS, THE BODY COUNT IS UP. THIS IS A CONVENIENCE WAY TO SHIFT AND EXPORT THE ATTENTION ABROAD. BUT THEY BECOME A VERY IMPORTANT TOKEN IN THE CLIENT EXCHANGES BETWEEN PUTIN AND THE CIRCLES THAT ACTUALLY ARE FINANCING THOSE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES. AND IT WILL LEAVE A VERY SERIOUS MARK BECAUSE YOU WILL SEE THAT THE VERY SAME THAT STANDS BEHIND — IS BEHIND THE — THE FACTORY IN ST. PETERSBURG, BUT HE IS ALSO ALLEGEDLY BEHIND SUPPLYING NOT ONLY THE FINANCES BUT THE LOGISTIC POSSIBILITIES FOR THE COMPANIES TO OPERATE. IN ESSENCE, IT’S AN INTERNAL POLITICAL GAME IN WHICH DIFFERENT OLIGARPHS WILL TRY TO CURRY FAVORS AND THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES WILL BECOME AN IMPORTANT TOOL FOR POLITICAL EXCHANGES. ONE OF THE LARGE SPECIFICS WHICH MAKES THE RUSSIAN CASE VERY DIFFERENT FROM THE ONES THAT WE’RE TALKING ABOUT FROM THE ONES THAT WERE SHOWN, THE DETAIL FROM THE PREVIOUS SPEAKERS IS LOOK AT HOW THE RUSSIAN PENAL CODE IN ARTICLE 359 ONE THROUGH THREE TREATS THOSE ACTIVITIES. IT’S VERY, VERY SPECIFIC AND ATTACHES A PRETTY HEAVY FINE. JUST SAW IN YOUR PRESENTATION. HOWEVER, IT’S LITERALLY IS PUTTING A BAN ON WHAT THEY CALL MERCENARY ACTIVITIES. WELL, OF COURSE, THERE WILL BE A LOT OF DISCUSSION I EXPECT TODAY AND TOMORROW TO TALK ABOUT THE — THE PROPER USE OF TERMS. AND NAMELY IF WE’RE TALKING ABOUT THOSE COMPANIES AND LET’S SEE, IF WE PUT IT TO CATEGORIES OF MR. McFADE WHEN HE WAS TALKING ABOUT MILITARIES, I WOULD SAY TO THE RUSSIAN COMPANIES END TO BE A HYBRID. AND THIS HYBRID IS RAPID LY MOVING FORWARD. SO, WE’LL PROCEED AND I’LL TRY TO EXPLAIN THAT EVEN THE INTERNAL SORT OF RUSSIAN PUBLIC POLITICAL OPINION IS HAVING A SHIFTING ATTITUDE TOWARDS CHANGING THE LAW IN THE PENAL CODE. PRIOR TO — PRIOR TO 2014, MERCENARY ACTIVITIES WAS SUPPRESSED BY THE VARIOUS STATE SECURITY ORGANS DUE TO THE FEARS OF RIVALRY BETWEEN THE OFFICIAL SECURITY APPARATUS AND THE PMC’S AND THE LOSS OF SUPERVISION AND CONTROL OVER THE ACTIVITIES AND THE COMPETITION OVER STATE FUNDING. MERCENARY HISTORY IN GENERAL HAS A LONG HISTORY IN RUSSIA, BUT THIS TYPE OF AUGMENTATION OF THOSE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES IS A NOVEL EXPERIMENT WITHIN THE RUSSIAN — POSTMILITARY DOCTRINE. YOU DO SEE WE HAVE SHIFTING ATTITUDES TOWARDS POSSIBLY CHANGING THE REALLY RESTRICTIVE LEGAL REGULATIONS WITHIN THE PENAL CODE ALL THE WAY UP TO MR. — FIGURES SUCH AS MR. HE BUT WHO ARE ADVOCATING FOR A MODIFICATION OF THE LAW IN ORDER TO HAVE THE COMPANIES NOT OPERATE ILLEGALLY. YOU CAN SEE IN THE CASES SUCH AS THE SLOVANIC COURT HAD TO BE REGISTERED ABROAD FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS, NOT ONLY BECAUSE THEY WERE TARGETED AT HOME, BUT THEY HAD TO OBSCURE OWNERSHIP AND FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS SUCH AS TAXATION. IT PUTS THEM IN THE LEGAL GREEN ZONE. WHAT WE SEE IS THAT THE ADMINISTRATION STANDS FROM DIFFERENT FACTORS. PRESIDENT PUTIN DESIRES FOR MORE MILITARY OPTIONS WHICH IS QUITE VISIBLE? THE LOBBY IS CONNECTED AND ALSO THE OIL AND GAS LOBBY WHICH IS LOOKING FOR CONTRACTS ABROAD AND AT HOME. COMPARED TO THE MODERN RUSSIAN MILITARIZATION PROJECT. THIS IS AN OUTLET TO SHOW CASE WHAT CAPABILITIES WILL BE IN THE CASE OF SYRIA. SO WOULD HAVE THE EFFORTS TO CONTINUE AND THIS YEAR TO RELEASE A BILL AND TO LEGALIZE THE RUSSIAN PMC’S AND MORE AND MORE PEOPLE ARE GETTING ON THIS BANDWAGON. NOW, NOW, AS I SAID, MY ARGUMENTATION HERE IS THAT THROUGHOUT THE 2000s, IF THERE WERE — THROUGHOUT THE 2000s, RUSSIAN ENTITIES WITH TOP SECURITY HAD USED IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN AND CERTAIN AFRICAN COMPANIES TO TEST THE WATER OF THE MODERN PMC BUSINESS. WE CAN TALK ABOUT IT AS A REAL TRAINING GROUND. SO BASICALLY WE CAN OBSERVE AN EVOLUTION. AND THIS EVOLUTION OF THIS TYPE OF BUSINESS GOES FROM WHAT I CALL EXPERIMENTAL PHASE IN TO WHICH THOSE COMPANIES, SOME OF THEM COMING FROM SECURITY BACKGROUND, OTHERS WITH MUCH MORE MILITARY FOCUS, HAVE MOVED FROM EXPERIMENTAL PHASE FROM WHAT I CALL STANDARDIZATION PHASE. AND THIS WILL BE OBSERVABLE WELL BEYOND SYRIA. THANK YOU, I’LL GO VERY QUICK. SO WE CAN ARGUE THAT THOSE PHASES HAVE MIXED RESULTS. AND ONE OF THEM WILL BE THE FAILURE AND THE EXAMPLES OF THOSE MIXED RESULTS WILL BE THE FAILURE AND SUCCESS ACQUIRED FROM DIFFERENT ENTITIES, ONE BEING A FIASCO IN SYRIA, FIASCO AT HOME, AND THE CAPTURE OF PAL HER ARE A WAS SUCCESS ON THE GROUND AND SUCCESS AT HOME. BUT, I THINK THOSE CASES ALONG WITH THE PATRIARCH AND OTHER END THE IS CLEARLY ILLUSTRATE THE DYNAMICS OF THE RUSSIAN EFFORTS AND WHAT THEY’RE INTERESTED IN. AS WE HAVE SPOKEN — WITH SYRIA I BELIEVE IS THE PERFECT TESTING GROUNDS. AND BECAUSE IT HAS ALLOWED FOR GROUPS LIKE WAGNER TO OPERATE, NOW WE CAN SEE FUTURE DEPLOYMENTS MAINLY IN AFRICA WHERE THOSE COMPANIES WILL BE ABLE TO GO NOT ONLY TO PROVIDE NARROW SERVICES, THEY WILL PACKAGE THE DISTRIBUTION. THEY WILL BE ABLE TO PROVIDE MUCH MORE THAN THE INITIAL SERVICES THAT ARE PRETTY LIMITED AND CRUDE. IN CONCLUSION. WHAT I WOULD LIKE TO POINT OUT WITH THE RUSSIAN PMCs IS NOT ONLY THAT THEY HAVE THE EXPERIMENTS FROM STANDARDIZATION FEES BUT NOT ONLY SUPPORT AND OPERATIONS BUT ALSO TO MY UNDERSTANDING THAT THOSE COMPANIES ACTUALLY DO REFLECT THE GOVERNANCE MODEL THAT WE SEE INSIDE OF RUSSIA. I THINK THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT TAKEAWAYS THAT I WANT TO LEAVE WITH YOU HERE TODAY FOR DISCUSSION THE ENTREPRENEURS THAT ARE STANDING BEHIND THOSE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES IN RUSSIA OPERATE MORE OR LESS ON THE PROCUREMENTS ON THE VERTICAL FROM THE ADMINISTRATION ALL THE WAY UP. AND WHAT MAKES THEM A RISK AND A HAZARD, WHICH WAS CLEARLY VISIBLE IN THE INCIDENT, IS THAT THE LACK OF COORDINATION, THE LACK OF UNDERSTANDING, THE LACK OF COORDINATION BECAUSE OF THE COMPETING CURATORS THAT THEY HAVE, IN THIS CASE, IT WILL BE FSB IS ONE OF THE CASES, SOMETIMES IT WILL BE MILITARY INTELLIGENCE. THE LACK OF TRANSPARENCY IN LEGAL AND ECONOMICAL TERMS MAKES THEM A HUGE RISK IN OPERATION WHEN THEY ARE DEPLOYED ABROAD. ONE THING TO THINK ABOUT WITH FUTURE AND COORDINATION BETWEEN THE OPERATORS OR THE OPERATORS ON THE GROUND UNLESS WE WANT TO RUN INTO ANOTHER INCIDENT IS THE ONE NEAR THE GASFIELD RESORT. THANK YOU VERY MUCH.>>I WOULD LIKE TO THANK OUR FOUR PANELISTS FOR THEIR EXCELLENT PRESENTATIONS. WE HAVE 11 OR 12 MINUTES LEFT BEFORE THE WITCHING HOUR. LET ME TAKE THE CHAIR’S PREROGATIVE BY ASKING THE FIRST QUESTION. WHAT EXTEND IS AN ACCURATE OBSERVATION IN GENERAL TERMS WHEN IT COMES TO THE GOVERNMENT’S USE OF PRIVATE MILITARY CORPORATIONS, THAT IT IS MORE OR LESS TO ABET THE ACHIEVEMENT OF STATE OBJECTIVES? WHEN IT COMES TO SOUTH AFRICA PRIVATE MILITARY CORPORATIONS ARE BASICALLY A ASIDE FROM THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SOUTH AFRICAN STATE OBJECTIVES AND WHEN IT COMES TO RUSSIA, IT’S THE ACHIEVEMENT AS OPPOSED TO THE STATE OBJECTIVES. LET ME THROW THAT OUT AS A SOFTBALL TO EVERYBODY. USING IT AS AN EXTENSION TO THE MILITARY. IT’S BECAUSE OF THE FAILURE OF GOVERNMENTS, AND IN RUSSIA, IT’S A FOREIGN POLICY TOO IN MY OPINION. SO, THERE’S A SUBSTANTIAL DIFFERENCE. AND IT ALSO REFLECTS OR I THINK THE DIVERSITY AND ALSO THE DANGER OF THE — OF THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. THAT WE ARE SEEING. AND I THINK THIS — THIS OUGHT TO BE COVERED IN THE RESEARCH. WHAT ARE THE PARAMETERS? OF THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY? BECAUSE WE SEE THE FULL SPECTRUM HERE.>>I WOULD JUST CONFIRM THAT AS WELL. IT GOES BACK TO WHAT IT SAYS IN THE BEGINNING OF MY TALK THAT CONTRACTORS ARE INDOCTRINE PART OF THE TRIPAR TIDE TOTAL FORCE IN THE U.S. AND IT RAISES A GOOD POINT HOW THIS COMPARED TO HOW OTHER CONTRACTORS ARE USED IN OTHER COUNTRIES.>>I GUESS I’LL HAVE TO AGREE AS WELL WITH THE — WITH THE OVERALL OPINION. AND THE RUSSIAN CASE FOR SURE, WE’RE LOOKING AS THE FOREIGN POLICY INSTRUMENT. AND IT IS, AS I SAID TRIED TO EXPLAIN, IT WAS A NOVEL INSTRUMENT, HOWEVER, WE’LL SEE MORE OF IT THAT WILL BE MY EXPECTATION AND IT WILL BE WITHIN A WIDER RANGE OF INSTRUMENTATION THAT IS USED IN THE GRAY ZONE. THEY’RE VERY, VERY COMPATIBLE WITH THE ASYMMETRIC WAY OF THINKING AND ON TOP OF EVERYTHING IN — IN THE MOW D– MODUS OPERANDI, WE’LL SEE MORE.>>THANK YOU, EVERYBODY. ONE OTHER OBSERVATION REGARDING THE PROCESS IS NETANYAHU MADE SIX TRIPS TO MOSCOW SINCE THE INTRODUCTION OF THE WAGNER GROUP INTO SYRIA IN 2016 IN AN EFFORT TO CREATE DECON FLIKS PROCESSES BETWEEN THE ISRAELI MILITARY AND THAT PRIVATE RUSSIAN MILITARY CORPORATION OF THE WAGNER GROUP THAT HAS BEEN OPERATING IN SYRIA. QUESTIONS, COMMENTS, OBSERVATIONS. SO I SPENT A WEEK IN MOSCOW. GOT THE BIG MILITARY EXHIBITION, BASICALLY. BUT THEN I SPENT THE REST OF MY TIME IN SIBERIA. AND THE ECONOMIC POLES ARE COMPLETELY DIFFERENT. BETWEEN MOSCOW AND ST. PETERSBURG AND SIBERIA. SO WOULD YOU SAY THAT IT’S POSSIBLE THAT PART OF THE REASON THAT PUTIN’S ADMINISTRATION HAS GONE FROM A MORE STATE POLITICIZED MILITARY TO A PRIVATE MILITARY BECAUSE OF THEIR ECONOMIC STATUS? AND MAYBE IT’S CHEAPER FOR THEM TO GO TO PRIVATIZED MILITARY? AND IS THERE ACTUALLY A HIDDEN WEAKNESS THERE?>>THANK YOU VERY MUCH. I DO BELIEVE THOSE ARE IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. YES, INDEED. SIBERIA AND THEN MOSCOW, ANY TIME IN SIBERIA, PROBABLY ARE WORLDS APART, FOR SURE. IS IT MORE CONVENIENT POLITICALLY, YES. IS IT CHEAPER? I’M NOT SURE. AND I WOULD ATTACH A CAUSE NOT NECESSARILY TO THE OPERATION AL COSTS HERE IN THE PREVIOUS PRESENTATION, JUST IN THE U.S. IS CLEARLY OUTLINED. I WOULD COST ATTACHED TO CORRUPTION. THAT’S WHAT I WAS TRYING TO DRAW TO ATTENTION. THESE WE’RE REFERRING TO ARE ECONOMIC BUT POLITICAL ENTREPRENEURS. HE’S IN THAT BUSINESS NOT NECESSARILY BECAUSE HE IS PATRIOTIC BUSINESSMAN. EVERYONE IN THOSE CLIQUES, AND YOU KNOW THE KREMLIN IS NOT A SOLID CONCEPT. THOSE ARE FLUID FRACTIONS WHICH ARE VYING FOR DIFFERENT INFLUENCE, BE IT THE ORTHODOX, IN THE HARD LINERS, BE IT SOMEBODY ELSE. SO THEY ARE TRYING TO PROVIDE INSTRUMENTATION TO ADVANCE THE FIGURE HEADS FOREIGN POLICY AS IT IS EXPRESSED. AND YOU’RE ABSOLUTELY RIGHT. IS THERE A WEAKNESS THERE. ABSOLUTELY. THERE’S A HUGE WEAKNESS AND THEN MAYBE I WAS NOT CLEAR ENOUGH TO EXPLAIN THE DANGERS THAT LIE BEHIND THIS TYPE OF BEHAVIOR. WHEN YOU DO HAVE COMPETING INTEREST, BE IT IN THE INTEL SECTOR, BE IT IN THE MILITARY SECTOR, YOU WILL GO INTO A ZONE TO WHICH THERE’S ALMOST GUARANTEED POSSIBILITY FOR INCIDENCE. THERE’S A VERY HIGH IDEA. IF YOU DISOWE DISOBEY A CHAIN OF COMMAND OR INTRODUCE FOREIGN POLICY OR PRIVATIZATION OF FOREIGN POLICY, THIS IS WHERE DANGER LIES. SOMEONE TRIES THE FEVER UP AT THE TOP BECAUSE THEIR ECONOMIC SITUATION WILL IMPROVE OR FOR OTHER REASONS, YOU ARE GOING WELL OUTSIDE OF WHAT IS TO BE EXPECTED. AND I THINK EVEN THE VERY TOP SOMETIMES IS SURPRISED BY WHAT THEY CAN DO. AND THAT WILL EXPLAIN THOSE PURSUITS FOR — FOR PUSHING THE — THIS INFORMATION OUTLETS SUCH AS THE FORM AND SO ON. THE NUMBER OF OLIGARPHS THE FAILED COUP D’ETAT AND MONTENEGRO IS ANOTHER EXAMPLE, SOMEONE WHO DECIDED A COMPETING VERSION OF WHAT HE THINKS IS FOREIGN POLICY. SO, YES, WEAKNESS AND DANGER. THANK YOU.>>QUITE INTERESTING IN THE RUSSIAN DEPLOYMENT IN THE PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES TO THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC. IT’S MOTIVATED BY ECONOMIC GAINS. I MEAN, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC IS BASICALLY AN UNGOVERNED SPACE. BUT THERE’S A LOT OF RESOURCES THERE, DIAMONDS, IN PARTICULAR. SO THERE’S NO DOUBT IN MY MIND THAT RUSSIA IS USING THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY TO PURSUE ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THAT PART OF THE WORLD.>>I HAVE TO MAKE ONE ADDITIONAL COMMENT ON THAT VERY ACCURATE STATEMENT. IT’S NOT CLEAR WHERE THE PROFIT FROM THE RUSSIAN DEPLOYMENT IN THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC IS GOING. IS IT GOING TO THE RUSSIAN STATE OR THE CERTAIN OLIGARHPS AND MINIGARPHS.>>THERE WAS AN IMPORTANT ONE. THANK YOU FOR THIS. NOT ONLY DO WE SEE THIS IN SYRIA, AFRICA, AND SUDAN, BUT NOW IN LIBYA LOOKING TO THE OFFICIAL PHOTOS WHO’S SITTING ON THE NEGOTIATING TABLE, YOU CAN SEE PREGOZIAN AGAIN WHEN THE ORIGINAL FOLDER IS NOT DOCTORS. HOWEVER, ONE THING IS IMPORTANT, IF WE’RE TRYING TO ATTRACT THE PATTERN, ONE OF THEM, SPEAKING OF NOT KNOWING WHERE THE PRIVATE INTEREST ENDS OR WHERE THE STATE INTEREST BEGINS, WHICH IS LITERALLY BLURRING THE LINES SOMETIMES. WE HAD TO DO THE GUESSWORK THEMSELVES. BUT ANOTHER IMPORTANT PATTERN THAT EMERGES IS CONNECTED SPECIFICALLY WITH ECONOMIC INTERESTS. IN THE CASE OF SYRIA AND CENTRAL AFRICA AND OTHER EXAMPLES I CAN THINK OF, IT SEEMS THAT THE PRIVATE OPERATORS ARE MOVING, USUALLY, AND THEY’RE LEFT TO GO TO SUCH LENGTHS THAT TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE HOST GOVERNMENT, BE IT BASHAR’S PEOPLE OR OTHER PEOPLE, THEY ARE GIVEN THE TASK TO LIBERATE AREAS WHICH ARE NOT UNDER GOVERNMENTAL CONTROL, AND LATER ON GUARD THEM AND PROVIDE THE SERVICES WHICH ARE THERE. SO IT SEEMS TO BE A REPETITIVE PATTERN THAT YOU WERE TALKING ABOUT. THANK YOU FOR THAT VERY IMPORTANT NOTE.>>HI. TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY. THANK YOU FOR AN INTERESTING PANEL. NOW IT SEEMS THAT WE ARE TALKING A LOT ABOUT THOSE COMPANIES AND OUR DATA FEEDS OF ANECDOTES AND NOT SOMETHING SUBSTANTIAL. AND I WOULD LIKE TO HEAR MORE FROM ALL OF YOU HOW YOU DEAL WITH THAT, HOW YOU COLLECT DATA, HOW YOU DEAL WITH THE ISSUE OF SECRECY?>>I THINK I CAN KICK IT OFF HERE. WE HAD THE DISCUSSION EARLIER. THERE’S AN OLD SAYING THAT SEEMS TO BE WHEN I DO GOOD, NOBODY REMEMBERS, WHEN I DO BAD, NOBODY FORGETS. IT’S A BIT LIKE GAMBLING AS WELL. YOU NEVER HEAR ABOUT HOW MUCH MONEY A PERSON LOSES IN THE CASINO. YOU ONLY HEAR HOW MUCH THEY WIN. SO IT’S DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN AS AN OUTSIDER ANY STATISTICAL INFORMATION ON THE SUCCESSES OF PMC OPERATIONS BECAUSE THERE’S NOT MUCH AVAILABLE OUT THERE. THE GUYS ARE SECRETIVE. YOU’RE GOING TO HEAR ABOUT THE SUCCESSES AND A FAILURE. THE ONLY WAY TO BREACH THAT IS THE RESEARCHER LIKE YOURSELF BEFRIENDING THE PEOPLE IN THE BUSINESS AND ALL OF THE COMPANIES SITTING DOWN AND EXPLAINING WHAT YOU WANT TO DO. IT WILL BE A WORTHY CAUSE TO LOOK AT STATISTICS. I THINK THERE ARE FAR MORE SUCCESSES THAN FAILURES. BUT THERE IS NO DATA AVAILABLE ON IT. SO, YOU KNOW, IT’S SOMETHING THAT CAN BE ADDRESSED AS A GROUP OR INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS. BUT YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE TO DIG HARD AND REALLY CONVINCE PEOPLE TO TALK ABOUT IT. BUT, YEAH, MOSTLY WE HEAR ABOUT THE SUCCESSES AND NOT THE FAILURES. THAT’S THE PROBLEM.>>I BEG TO DIFFER. WHERE I’M SITTING IN THE WORLD, THERE’S A LOTLE OF INFORMATION ON PRIVATE SECURITY. THERE’S A LOT OF PEOPLE TO INTERVIEW. DEVIN BARLOW AND OTHERS ARE OPEN TO DISCUSSING THEIR SUCCESSES AND THEIR FAILURE. OF COURSE, THEY WILL CHOOSE WHAT TO COMMUNICATE TO YOU AS WELL. SO THAT’S THE REAL THE IS AND ETHICS OF THE RESEARCH. BUT FROM MY PERSPECTIVE AND FROM WHERE I’M SITTING, I THINK THERE’S A WEALTH OF INFORMATION OUT THERE. WE JUST NEED TO GO AND FIND IT AND BOLD THE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE. IN SOUTH AFRICA, THE PRIVATE MILITARY INDUSTRY OR THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY, THERE’S AN OVERWHELMING AMOUNT OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE. YOU JUST NEED TO GET OUT THERE AND GET YOUR HANDS ON TO IT.>>UNFORTUNATELY, WE HAVE TIME FOR ONLY ONE MORE QUESTION AS LONG AS IT’S A QUICK ONE. GOING ONCE — OH, GOING TWICE — OH –>>THANK YOU FOR ALL OF THOSE GREAT TALKS. ONE, WHAT WOULD BE A GOOD EXAMPLE OF KIND OF FORCE PERSONNEL ISSUES BETWEEN PEOPLE GOING TO THE MILITARY TO THE PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES. DO YOU THINK THAT THERE SHOULD BE LIKE FELLOWSHIPS THAT THE MILITARY SENDS OFFICERS TO TO STAY WITH PMCs A LITTLE BIT LIKE THEY DO WITH THE TECH COMPANIES? OR, DO YOU THINK WITH THE U.S. MILITARY IS TRYING TO INCREASE THE ABILITY TO GAIN CYBER PERSONNEL AND INCREASE THAT, DO YOU THINK THAT SOME OF THOSE MODELS WOULD ALSO KIND OF BE EF EFFECTIVE RETAINING PEOPLE WITH CERTAIN SKILLS WHO AREN’T NECESSARILY FULLY ACTIVE MILITARY FOLKS TO QUICKLY COME IN AND HELP WHEN THEY NEED IT.>>I LIKE THE IDEA OF PUTTING MILITARY FOLKS EMBEDDED IN A PRIVATE SECURITY TEAM. I HAVE NOT HEARD OF THAT BEING AN OPTION ON THE TABLE. I DO THINK LIKE I SAID THAT THE MILITARY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE IS STARTING TO UTILIZE TRAINING EFFECTIVELY ON HOW TO INTERACT WITH CONTRACTORS BUT I DON’T THINK THERE’S MUCH TRAINING ON THOSE INDIVIDUALS TOGETHER IN THE SAME ROOM. THE TYPES OF TRAININGS ARE IN PLACE. THEY’RE ON-LINE TRAININGS, THERE ARE TWO WEEK LONG COURSES WHERE MILITARY FOLKS WILL GO AND GET A STRONG BIT OF TRAINING AND THERE ARE TUTORING ASPECTS NOW. SO OCS TUTORS CONTRACTORS AND THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WILL PUTE SENNISHLY, THEY’LL TRAIN SOMEBODY UP REALLY WELL AND THEY’LL GO AND DEPLOY WITH THE TEAM AND TRAIN WITH HOW TO INTERACT WITH THE CONTRACTORS WHAT THE APPROPRIATE DOCTRINE IS, ENDS ETC. REMIND ME OF THE SECOND PART OF YOUR QUESTION. I WANTED TO ASK THAT AS WELL. CYBER? YEAH, THE MILITARY RIGHT NOW, WE ARE IN THE PROCESS OF FINISHING A STUDY. I RAN FOR THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE LOOKING AT HOW TO INTEGRATE CYBER CAPABILITIES, MEDICAL CAPABILITIES, THINGS THAT HAVE A HIGH MONETARY FACTOR IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR BETTER TO THE MILITARY AND THINKING ABOUT INCENTIVEIZING NONMONETARY OPTIONS, SORT OF PART TIME, DIFFERENT TYPES OF FUNCTIONS LIKE THAT. IT’S SOMETHING THAT DOD IS INTERESTED IN, BUT IT’S AN OPEN QUESTION ON HOW THEY’RE GOING TO SUCCEED. CAN I JUST MAKE AN OBSERVATION? AS A PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY, I CAN JUST SAY I SORT OF GET THAT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE AS OFTEN AS POSSIBLE INTO THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY ACADEMY TO INVITE PEOPLE LIKE JOHAN AND OTHERS TO COME SPEAK TO MY STUDENTS BECAUSE THEY HAVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONFLICT IN AFRICA THAN MOST AFRICAN SOLDIERS. SO I THINK IT’S ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL THAT WE SORT OF GET OUR HANDS ON TO THAT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE AND BRING IT IN TO THE DOMAIN WHERE IT CAN BE UTILIZED BY — BY MILITARIES. IT’S ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL IF WE DON’T DO IT, WE ACTUALLY ARE WRONG.>>JOHAN, CAROL, THANK YOU FOR A STIMULATING AND ENLIGHTENING PANEL. THANK YOU.>>OKAY. WE’RE GOING TO TAKE A 15-MINUTE BREAK. IF WE CAN HAVE EVERYBODY BACK HERE AT 11:20. IT’S ABOUT 11:05 RIGHT NOW. THANK YOU. ALSO WE HAVE SOME BOOKS THAT ARE FOR SALE IN THE BACK OF THE ROOM HERE. IF YOU’D LIKE TO LOOK THROUGH THOSE. IT WILL ALSO BE FOR SALE IN THE LUNCH PERIOD AS WELL. THANK YOU.>>ALL RIGHT, IF WE COULD ALL TAKE OUR SEATS AND WE’LL GET READY FOR THE NEXT PRESENTATION. WELCOME BACK. I’M DR. SHARON HAMILTON, I WORK IN THE OFFICE OF LEADERSHIP AND SECURITY STUDIES. MY HONOR TO INTRODUCE THE NEXT SPEAKER AND MY COLLEAGUE AND FRIEND. HE’S THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF STRATEGICIC AND SECURITY STUDIES AND AN ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR IN THE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS. HE HAS 20 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE WORKING IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS, MEDIA RELATIONS, AND COALITION BUILDING. HEP EARNED A BACHELOR’S IN LAW FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA AND RECEIVED A PhD. IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT WHILE TEACHING AND LEADING THE EXCHANGE PROGRAM WITH SOUTH AFRICA. HE’S FLUENT IN ENGLISH, AFRIKAANS, AND GERMAN. HE SERVED IN THE DIPLOMATIC CORE OF SOUTH AFRICA IN 1987 TO 1998 INCLUDING FOUR YEARS AS THE POLITICAL AMBASSADOR — ADVISOR TO THE AMBASSADOR. DR. MINNIE IS ALSO A VETERAN OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN DEFENSE FORCE HAVING SERVED FOUR YEARS’ ACTIVE DUTY IN IF AN GOLAN WAR IN THE 1980s. THE RESEARCH INTEREST INCLUDES ST. FRAGILITY, ROLE OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT, INTELLIGENCE AND COUNTERTERRORISM. TODAY HE’LL BE PRESENTING ON SOUTH AFRICA’S PARADOX, A LATENT STATE OF FRAGILITY. PLEASE WELCOME DR. MINNIE. GOOD MORNING, AGAIN. I GUESS BY NOW YOU’VE HAD AN OVERDOSE OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ACCENT. I KNOW I’M STANDING BETWEEN YOU AND LUNCH SO I’M GOING TO TRY TO DO THIS AS SUCCINCTLY AS POSSIBLE. THE TOPIC ON THE SCREEN HERE IS SOUTH AFRICA’S PARADOX AND I TALK ABOUT SOUTH AFRICA BEING POTENTIALLY A FRAGILE STATE. THIS IS A TOPIC NEAR AND DEER TO MY HEART. I CARE A LOT FOR THE COUNTRY. SO HERE WE GO. THE RESEARCH EXAMINES TO THE EXTENT THAT SOUTH AFRICA HAS THE LATENT STATE FRAGILITY AND I INCLUDE THAT TO THE GOVERNMENTAL CAPACITY, THE CONDITIONS FROM WHICH INDICATORS OF FRAGILITY SHOW A COMPANY TO HAVE MODERATE TO LOW FRAGILITY. AT THE SAME TIME IT EXPERIENCES HIGH VIOLENT CRIME, SOCIAL DISPARITIES, INDEMOCRATIC CONSTRUCTION AND POOR SERVICE DELIVERY, ESPECIALLY WITH REGARDS TO THE PROVISION OF THE SECURITY TO ITS CITIZENS. I CALL THESE THE NONTRADITIONAL INDICATORS OF STATE FRAGILITY. THE CHALLENGE IS FACING THE SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT JUXTAPOSED AGAINST THE LOWERING FRAGILITY LEVELS HIGH LIGHT THE PARADOX. ON THE ONE HAND, THE STATE FRAGILITY INDEX, REFERRED TO AS IS SFI MOVING FORWARD SHOWS SOUTH AFRICA IS VERY MODERATE TO LOW FRAGILITY. WHILE ON THE OTHER HAND, IT FACES MANY CHALLENGES TO PERSONAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC SECURITY. ALL OF THESE SECURITY MEASURES ALSO MEASURES FRAGILITY OR STABILITY. ECONOMIC — BUT THEY GO BEYOND THE SFI’S MEASURES. THE SFI MEASURES TAKE INTO ACCOUNT SECURITY, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL EFFECTIVENESS AND LEGITIMACY SCORES. HOWEVER, IT THE US NOT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT EXTENDED HUMAN MEASURES LIKE UNEMPLOYMENT, CORRUPTION, GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP, CRIME RATES, AND IDENTITY-BASED PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT POLICIES. THESE ARE STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE THAT REFLECT THE POTENTIAL FOR CONFLICT IN THE STATE. MY STUDY SHOWS THAT IF THE SFI MEASURES ARE NOT SUFFICIENT TO ACCURATELY REPRESENT STATE STABILITY. RESEARCH SYSTEMS INCORPORATED, A PRIVATE RESEARCH ENTERPRISE PRODUCES THE INFORMATION RESOURCES THAT FORM THE FOUNDATION FOR THE CENTER OF SYSTEMIC PEACE, WHICH PRODUCES THE SFI. THE SAME IS IN VIRGINIA AND WAS FOUND IN 1997 AND ENGAGES IN GLOBAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS WITH A RESEARCH FOCUS ON THE PROBLEM OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE BY SYSTEMATICALLY ANALYZING THE DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRIMINAL ACTIVITY, RACIAL AND POLITICAL INCLUSIVITY, AND THE REGIME’S OVERALL STABILITY ACROSS TIME. IN SO DOING, THE SFI RELIES EXCLUSIVELY ON STATE AGGREGATED DATA AND IGNORES PERSONAL COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC SECURITY AND INDIVIDUAL PERCEPTIONS OF SECURITY. TO ADDRESS SOME OF THESE SHORT FALLS, I IDENTIFIED THE SERIOUS CHALLENGES TO PERSONAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC SECURITY UNDER THE EXISTING CONDITIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA IN AN EFFORT TO EXIST WHERE THE EXISTING MEASURES OF STATE FRAGILITY MAY BE IGNORING IMPORTANT FACTORS MEASURING FRAGILITY. THIS QUESTION IS AT THE HEART OF MY RESEARCH AND GUIDES MY ANALYSIS. THE INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF PFC’S, PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES IN SOUTH AFRICA SHOULD BE SEEN AGAINST THE BACKDROP OF MANY CHALLENGES THAT FACE THE SECURITY SYSTEM, PARTICULARLY THE SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE SERVICE AND THE GROWING LACK OF TRUST OF THE PEOPLE, THE GENERAL PUBLIC IN ITS ABILITY TO MAINTAIN SAFETY AGAINST CRIME AND CORRUPTION. THE INCREASE IN NUMBERS OF PFCS MAY ALSO BE ATTRIBUTABLE TO THE GOVERNMENTS OUTSOURCING SOME OF THE INSECURITY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OUT OF NECESSITY WHERE THE STATE DOES NOT HAVE THE LEVEL OF EXPERTISE NECESSARY TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVE SECURITY SERVICES. IN SOUTH AFRICA, PFCs SECURE AMONG OTHER AREAS FIXED ASSETS SUCH AS COMMERCIAL AND GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, PROVIDES RESIDENTIAL SECURITY, FUNCTION AS ARMED RESPONSE UNITS, PROVIDE CRIME LAB AND FORENSIC SERVICES, AND GATHER INTELLIGENCE. MOREOVER, GIVEN THAT SOME OF THE AFOREMENTIONED FUNCTIONS TRADITIONALLY ASSUMED BY THE STATE ARE NOW PROVIDED BY THE SECURITY — BY THE PRIVATE SECTOR, ONE MIGHT REASONABLY WONDER ABOUT ACCOUNTABILITY AND LEGITIMACY OF THE STATE. AND IF OUTSOURCING GOES TO NONE OF THE STANDARD STATE FRAGILITY MEASURES, I EXAMINE THESE LATENT STATE FRAGILITY IN DETAIL. THE KEY ROLE AS A MILITARY FORCE IN CANADA AND A VITAL FACTOR FOR SUB SAHARAN AFRICA MAKES IT NOTEWORTHY FOR FORMULATION OR REFORMULATION IN AN EFFORT TO ADDRESS THE MANY CHALLENGES IT FACES. HOW DO GOVERNANCE AND STATE FRAGILITY CORRELATE WITH THE STATE SECURITY SYSTEM? MORE PRECISELY, DOES STATE FRAGILITY PRESUPPOSE A SUFFICIENT SECURITY SYSTEM? OR DOES AN EFFECTIVE SECURITY SYSTEM HELP TO ESTABLISH A STABLE STATE? IN AN ATTEMPT TO ADDRESS THESE QUESTIONS, I CONSIDER AFTER THE COLD WAR MOST CONFLICTS IN THE WORLD HAVE INCURRED WITHIN STATES AND NOT BETWEEN STATES AND THAT THE FOCUS OF SECURITY HAS SHIFTED TO THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE COMMUNITY. FIRST, IN AN ATTEMPT TO ANSWER WHETHER MEASURES OF STATE FRAGILITY REALLY MEASURE FRAGILITY, I USE THE HUMAN SECURITY FRAMEWORK BY FOCUSING ON THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A STATE-CENTERED AND HUMAN CENTERED APPROACH TO SECURITY BY COMPARING TWO SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT COMPARING THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN SECURITY, NAMELY THE NARROW AND THE BROAD AND FOCUSING ON THE BROAD SCHOOL. SECOND, I LOOK AT THE ROLE THAT GOOD GOVERNANCE, LEGITIMATE GOVERNANCE, AND GOOD GOVERNANCE DEFICIT PLAY IN THE STABILITY AND THE ABILITY OF THE STATE TO PROVIDE FOR THE SECURITY OF ITS CITIZENS. IN THIS STUDY, I ARGUE THAT A STABLE STATE SHOULD BE ABLE TO PROVIDE FOR THE SECURITY NEEDS OF ITS POPULATION. ESPECIALLY IN THE AREAS OF PERSONAL COMMUNITY ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SECURITY. THROUGH ITS AGENCIES SUCH AS THE POLICE, HOME AFFAIRS, DEFENSE, JUDICIARY, INTELLIGENCE, AND THE PENAL SYSTEM. THIRD, THE TERM SECURITY STUDIES USED WHOLISTICALLY AND GOES BEYOND INDIVIDUAL SERVICES, I’M INTERESTED IN UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SECURITY SYSTEM AND STATE STABILITY AND SO FOCUS ON THE SECURITY SYSTEM, FUNCTIONAL SPACE WITH THE SECURITY SYSTEM ACTORS INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER. AND HERE’S A LITTLE DIAGRAM. THE FUNCTIONAL SPACE I’M REFERENCING. YOU CAN SEE OVER HERE, PART OF THE FUNCTIONAL SPACE, THE STATE IS SUPPOSED TO PREVENT VIOLENT CONFLICT DOMESTICALLY, PROTECT THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM AND EXERCISE POLITICAL OVERSIGHT. AND THESE ARE THE THREE AREAS OF THE FUNCTIONAL SPACE THAT I FOCUS ON IN MY STUDY. THE OTHERS BEING PROTECTING THE STATE AGAINST INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS, FORCING NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAWS, CONTRIBUTING TO INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND DEFEND THE MORAL INTELRITY. HOWEVER, THESE THREE CAME TO THE FORE IN MY FIELD RESEARCH QUITE STRONGLY. AND HERE WE HAVE THE MAIN ACTORS THAT I REFERENCE IN MY STUDY, BEING THE JUDICIAL PENAL ACTOR, CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN ACTOR. LEGISLATIVE BODIES, EXECUTIVE AUTHORITIES, CORE SECURITY ACTORS, EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL, ARMED FORCES AND INTELLIGENCE, POLICE CUSTOMS AND INTELLIGENCE. AND HERE IS NONSTATUTORY FORCES WHERE PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES OPERATE. E LAST TO OUNCE THE OUTSOURCING THAT IT PLAYS IN THE STATE, I FOCUS ON THE SHORT FALLS OF THE OUTSOURCING OF SECURITY FUNCTIONS. THERE MIGHT BE SOUND ECONOMIC REASONS FOR THE STATES TO OUTSOURCE SECURITY FUNCTIONS, IN WHICH CASE, IT COULD CONTRIBUTE TO STABILITY, WHICH IS AN ADVANTAGE, HOWEVER, THE STATE SHOULD CONSIDER WHICH SECURITY FUNCTIONS ARE CORE AND DECIDE WHICH OF THOSE, IF ANY SHOULD BE OUTS OUTSOURCED. THE EXPERTISE AND INSTITUTIONAL MEMORY COULD BE OUTSOURCED IN CORE SECURITY FUNCTIONS SUCH AS POLICE INTELLIGENCE AND CUSTOMS OR BORDER CONTROL. FURTHER MORE, OUTSOURCING TO PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES ASSUMES EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT, TRANSPARENCY, AND ACCOUNTABILITY OF THE PFCs. WHEN THIS IS NOT PRESENT, THE STATE LOSES CONTROL OVER THE ACTIVITIES OF THE PFCs. WHEN THE STATE OUTSOURCES FROM A POSITION OF WEAKNESS BECAUSE IT LOST THE CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY OF OFFERING THE POPULATION EFFECTIVE SECURITY, MY STUDY REFERS TO SUCH OUTSOURCING AS IN SOURCING. IN-SOURCING ASSUMES THAT THE STATE CANNOT OFFER THESE SERVICES WITHOUT THE ASSISTANCE OF THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. AS THE COLD WAR CAME TO AN END, THE SECURITY DISCOURSE SHIFTED FROM THE NARROW INTERPRETATION OF SECURITY AND THE SECURITY OF TERRITORY FROM EXTERNAL AGGRESSION, PROTECTION OF NATIONAL INTEREST AND FOREIGN POLICY, OR GLOBAL SECURITY FROM THE THREAT OF A NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST TO HUMAN SECURITY. DURING THE COLD WAR. LEGITIMATE CONCERNS OF ORDINARY CITIZENS WHO SOUGHT SECURITY IN OUR DAILY LIVES WERE LARGELY IGNORED. ORDINARY CITIZENS SAW PROTECTION FROM CRIME, POLITICAL REPRESSION, UNEMPLOYMENT, DISEASE, HUNGER, SOCIAL CONFLICT, AND ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS. HAVE TWO MAIN ASPECTS, SAFETY FROM CHRONIC THREATS SUCH AS HUNGER, DISEASE, AND REPRESSION, AND, B, PROTECTION FROM HURTFUL DISRUPTIONS IN THE PATTERNS OF DAILY LIVES CAUSED BY VIOLENT AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR INCLUDING STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE AND NONSTATE SOCIETAL BEHAVIOR. THE EXAMPLES OF DIRECT VIOLENCE AND DEATH ARE CRIME, DRUG ABUSE, DEHUMANIZATION, AND EXAMINATION. INSTRUCTIONS OF STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE ARE DEPRIVATION, RAMPANT PREVENTABLE, TREATABLE DISEASE, POOR RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTER, UNDERDEVELOPMENT, POVERTY, INEQUALITY, AND POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AS THESE HARM PEOPLE INDIRECTLY. THEY CAN BEER REP VERSEBLE, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE SOCIAL STANDING OR WEALTH OR POVERTY OF THE INDIVIDUAL. IN THE END, SECURITY IS A CONCERN NOT WITH WEAPONS BUT WITH HUMAN LIFE AND DIGNITY. HUMAN SECURITY IS ABOUT ENABLING PEOPLE TO EXERCISE CHOICES FREELY AND SAFELY AND GUARANTEEING THAT THE OPPORTUNITIES BROUGHT TODAY BY DEVELOPMENT WILL NOT BE LOST TOMORROW. HUMAN SECURITY IS MORE EASILY IDENTIFIED THROUGH ITS ABSENCE THAN ITS PRESENCE. HUMAN SECURITY IS NOT A DEFENSIVE CONCEPT, BUT AN INTEGRATIVE ONE, WHICH HAS THE UNIVERSAL OF LIFE CLAIMS AS MENTIONED. AND IS BASED ON THE SOLIDARITY AMONG PEOPLE AND CAN HAPPEN WHEN THERE IS CONSENSUS THAT DEVELOPMENT MUST INVOLVE ALL PEOPLE. BASED ON THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT FIRST RELEASED IN 1994, THERE ARE SEVEN COMPONENTS THAT MAKE UP HUMAN SECURITY, OF WHICH I USE FOUR. PERSONAL, COMMUNITY, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL. IN ORDER TO MEASURE COMPONENTS OF STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE. THIS LIST SUMMARIZES A RANGE OF SECURITY THREATS FROM PHYSICAL VIOLENCE TO HUMAN DIGNITY THAT ARE RELEVANT TO MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT INCLUDE ENVIRONMENTAL FOOD AND HEALTH CARE SECURITY AS THESE EXTEND BEYOND THE SCOPE OF MY PRESENT STUDY. HOWEVER, PERSONAL AND COMMUNITY SECURITY IS THREATENED WHERE A STATE HAS HIGH VIOLENT CRIME RATES. I HAVE SOME STATS TO THROW ON THE SCREEN. AGGRAVATED ROBBERY IN 2017, 141,000 INCIDENTS HERE OF AGGRAVATED ROBBERY. THAT’S OVER 300 A DAY. TRIO CRIMES, WHICH IS RESIDENTIAL ROBBERIES IN THIS PERIOD OF 2002 TO 2016, 14, 15-YEAR PERIOD, GONE UP 146%. BUSINESS ROBBERIES UP TO 76%. AND CAR JACKING UP 13.8%. HERE THIS IS AGGRAVATED ROBBERY. IN 2016-2017, YOU’RE LOOKING AT 215 PER DAY. WHEN WE’RE TALKING ABOUT AGGRAVATED ROBBERY, THIS IS VIOLENT CRIME THAT’S PERPETRATED AGAINST PEOPLE. WE HAVE HAVE A MURDER RATE AND ATTEMPTED MURDER RATE HOVERING AROUND 50 PER DAY IN THE POPULATION IN THE ROUND ABOUT 58 MILLION. MORE MURDERS AND ATTACKS FROM IN THIS SIX-YEAR PERIOD, WE HAVE OVER 400 LOOTERS THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE, AND THESE ATTACKS OVER HERE ARE PRETTY VIOLENT. I AM NOT SURE WHICH ONE YOU’LL CHOOSE BEING ON THE RECEIVING END. THESE ARE ALARMING STATISTICS. POLITICAL SECURITY THREATENED WHEN A STATE EXPERIENCES HIGH LEVEL OF CORRUPTION AND ABUSE OF POWER. THE STATE HAS HIGH LEVELS OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND POVERTY RATES. THE WORLD BANK STATISTICS, 2006, THE OFFICIAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL LABOR FORCE. 22.6 UP TO 22.7. THAT’S THE OFFICIAL ACCORDING TO WORLD BANK. WE’RE LOOKING AT 40% UNEMPLOYMENT AND UP TO 50% IN THE AGE GROUP BETWEEN 15 AND 25. THAT’S PRETTY ALARMING AS WELL. GOOD GOVERNANCE, 70% OF THE WORLD’S FAILED, WEAK, OR FRAGILE STATES ARE LOCATED IN AFRICA AND HOME TO THE WORLD’S POOREST 1 BILLION PEOPLE. MOST OF THESE STATES MAY ALSO HAVE A DYSFUNCTIONAL SECURITY SECTOR THAT IS EITHER POLITICALLY COMPROMISED OR CHRONICALLY UNDERFUNDED OR SUBJECT TO CONFLICT OR UNABLE TO CONTROL SOVEREIGN TERRITORY. THE FRAGILE STATE IS ABLE TO DELIVER THE THE POLITICAL SECURITY. IDENTIFIED THE SECURITY OF POLITICAL FUNCTION AND THE PUBLIC GOOD. THE ALL POWERFUL SOVEREIGN STATE PROSTRIDES SECURITY TO ITS CITIZENS BASED ON THE CONTRACTOR BETWEEN THE STATE WHO GUARANTEES THE SAFETY OVER ITS CITIZENS ON ONE HAND IN EXCHANGE FOR THE LOYALTY ON THE CITIZENS ON THE OTHER. GOOD GOVERNANCE INCLUDES NOT JUST POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS BUT NORMS AND INTERACTIONS AMONG THE PEOPLE, THE GOVERNED AND THE GOVERN NOWHERES — GOVERNORS. THE EFFECTIVE SYSTEM. THEY BELIEVE FUNDAMENTALLY IN THE LEGITIMACY OF THE SYSTEM AND THE PEOPLE WHO GOVERN THEM IS ESSENTIAL IF THE STATE IS TO WARD OFF BECOMING A FRAGILE STATE. SINCE 1994 WHEN SOUTH AFRICA BECAME A DEMOCRACY, THE COUNTRY MADE REMARKABLE PROGRESS IN UPLIFTING PREVIOUSLY DISADVANTAGED POPULATION GROUPS. THE COMMUNITY OF NATIONS ACCEPTED SOUTH AFRICA INTO ITS FOLD AGAIN AND TRADE WITH THE COUNTRIES NORMALIZED. OVER THE PAST 24 YEARS, INDICATIONS ARE THAT THE COUNTRY HAS PROGRESSED FROM A SERIOUSLY FRAGILE STATE TO ONE WITH FRAGILITY. IN THE AFTERGLOW OF THE HUGELY SUCCESSFUL HOSTING OF THE SOCCER WORLD CUP IN 2010, SOUTH AFRICA WAS HERALDED AS A GREAT DEMOCRACY UNDERSCORED BY THE WIDELY USED STATE FRAGILITY INDEX. THE SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT MAY CONSIDER EFFORTS TO CONTAIN CRIME AND DEAL WITH IT EFFECTIVELY. A COMBINED EFFORT BY THE SECURITY FORCES AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN COLLABORATION WITH THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY HAD A POSITIVE IMPACT ON REDUCING CRIME LEVELS IN THE COUNTRY. SINCE THE SOCCER WORLD CUP, NOTWITHSTANDING THE INCREASING POLICE NUMBERS AND THE POLICE BUDGET, DIRECT AND STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE IS ON THE RISE AGAIN. SOUTH AFRICA WAS A VIOLENT DEMOCRACY IN THE ’90s TO THE 2000s. IN ADDITION, SOUTH AFRICA IS HOME TO THE WORLD’S LARGEST PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY AS MEASURED BY THE GDP. THE SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT HAS OUTSOURCED SOME OF THE CORE SECURITY FUNCTIONS TO THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. TO UNDERSTAND THE COMPLEXITY OF THE SECURITY SITUATION IN SOUTH AFRICA, A ALL ITS NUANCE, MY RESEARCH ENABLES ME TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE EXISTING MEASURES OF STATE FRAGILITY REALLY MEASURE FRAGILITY. I DO THIS BY INTERVIEWING SECURITY EXPERTS IN THE FIELD. THE SFI INDICATES THAT THE COUNTRY HAS HIGH FRAGILITY WHEN IT EXPERIENCES MAJOR POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC CHALLENGES. IN ORDER TO ASSESS THE NATURE AND MAGNITUDE OF THE CHALLENGES IN SOUTH AFRICA, I ALSO INTERVIEWED LEADING SOUTH AFRICAN PRACTITIONERS AND EXPERTS. WITH THIS RESEARCH, I GAINED AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE THAT THE SECURITY SYSTEM THE ACTORS PLAY IN THE STATE FRAGILITY DEBATE WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON THE ROLE OF THE POLICE AND PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. IT’S ANTICIPATED THAT THIS RESEARCH MAY OFFER INSIGHTS TO THE CONCEPT OF LATENT STATE FRAGILITY. THIS CONCEPT PREDICTS WHEN THE INDICATORS OF STATE FRAGILITY OR INSTABILITY ARE PRESENT, SUCH AS HIGH VIOLENT CRIME, HUGE SOCIAL DISPARITIES, INDEMOCRATIC CORRUPTION, AS MENTIONED, ESPECIALLY WITH REGARDS TO THE PROVISION OF THE SECURITY POPULATION, WE HAVE A CASE OF LATENT STATE FRAGILITY. MY RESEARCH SHOWS THAT THE COMPONENTS HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED AS INTEGRAL FACTORS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE. MORE OVER, WHEN THE STATE HAS SEEN THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY GROW TO WHERE IT BECOMES LARGER THAN THE POLICE AND MILITARY FORCES COMBINED, ONE HAS TO WONDER WHETHER THE OUTSOURCING OF THE SECURITY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS TO THAT INDUSTRY CONTRIBUTES TO OR ERODES THE STABILITY OF THE STATE. ALL STATISTICAL DATA WITH DEMOCRACY AS MENTIONED. IT HOSTS THE LARGEST AND MOST RAPIDLY GROWING NUMBER OF PFCs THAN EVER INCREASING ARRAY OF SECURITY FUNCTIONS. 2018, 2.365 MILLION PEOPLE IN THE PRIVATE INDUSTRY IN SOUTH AFRICA. IT’S BOTH ACTIVE AND INACTIVE. FROM ’97 TO 2018, WE HAD AN INCREASE OF OVER 100% OF ACTIVE REGISTERED PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES. AN ACTIVE SECURITY OFFICERS INCREASED BY 353% OVER THAT 20-YEAR PERIOD. WE HAVE OVER HALF A MILLION PRIVATE SECURITY OFFICES TODAY. THIS CALLS INTO QUESTION SOUTH AFRICA’S MONOPOLY ON THE SECURITY AND THE ABILITY TO ENSURE THE SECURITY OF ITS CITIZENS OVER ALL OF THE TERRITORY IN LIGHT OF DIRECT AND STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE IN THE COUNTRY. THE PREVALENCE OF DIRECT VIOLENCE BEGS THE QUESTION OF WHETHER SOUTH AFRICA MAY NOT BE — MAY NOT BE ABLE TO ENSURE THE SECURITY OF ITS POPULATION. IT IS QUESTIONABLE WHETHER OUTSOURCING PRESENTS A SOLUTION GIVEN IN THE INCREASING VIOLENT CRIME RATES WITH THE COMMITTED GROWTH IN THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. IN MY RESEARCH, I USED SEMISTRUCTURED INTERVIEWS, OUR REVIEW OF OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS, AND SECONDARY DATA NOTICES TO UNDERSTAND THE CURRENT CONTINENT IN SOUTH AFRICA AND TO PROVIDE FOR THE SECURITY OF ITS CITIZENS. SOUTH AFRICA HAS SHOWN A STEADY IMPROVEMENT OVER A 16-YEAR PERIOD ACCORDING TO SFI. SOMEHOW — HERE WE GO. FROM ’95 TO OVER 20-YEAR PERIOD, WE DROPPED A 25 BEING EXTREMELY FRAGILE, ACCORDING TO SFI, IN 2016, WE’VE IMPROVED ACCORDING TO SFI, WE’VE BECOME STABLE. AND THAT’S WHAT PIQUED MY INTEREST FOR THIS RESEARCH STUDY BECAUSE I THINK DIFFERENTLY. ACCORDING TO THIS INDEX, SOUTH AFRICA OVERALL IS BECOMING MORE STABLE. IN FACT, SOUTH AFRICA IS THE MOST ADVANCED COUNTRY POLITICALLY IN AFRICA AND SHOWS SIGNS OF WHAT WE FIND IN FRAGILE STATES. SOUTH AFRICA IS AFRICA’S SECOND WEALTHIEST STATE AFTER NIGERIA IN TOTAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AND HAS SUB SAHARA’S IMPRESSIVE MILITARY BUT THE COUNTRY BATTLES HIGH DIRECT AND STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE. THE DIVIDE DEFINED ALONG STRUCTURAL LINES TODAY WAS FOUND BETWEEN CROSS LINES BETWEEN THE HAVES AND THE HAVE-NOTES. AFTER APARTHEID COMPLEX WAS USED TO KEEP IN CONTROL OF THE COUNTRY THROUGH SYSTEMIC SOCIAL ENGINEERING. SOUTH AFRICA BECAME A DEMOCRACY IN 1994. HOWEVER, THAT DEMOCRACY SHOWED SIGNS OF GROWING IMPATIENCE WHO AMONG OTHERS THE LABOR UNIONS WHOSE MEMBERS ARE NO BETTER OFF ECONOMICALLY THAN DURING THE APARTHEID YEARS AND A GROWTH RATE THAT DOES NOT ADDRESS THE HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RATE. THE REAL GDP PER CAPITA AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH FOR SOUTH AFRICA FOR THE PERIOD 2010 TO 2015 IS .7%. CORRELATED WITH THESE ISSUES IS THE HIGH RATE OF VIOLENT CRIME AND EXPANDING POLICE SERVICE WITH ONE OF THE BIGGEST BUDGETS AMONG ALL OF THE NATIONAL DEPARTMENTS, APPARENTLY UNABLE TO COMBAT CRIME EFFECTIVELY. PUBLIC SAFETY SPENDING IN THE 20-YEAR PERIOD, 94 TO 2014 HAS GONE UP 670%. UP TO 110 BILLION RAND WHICH IS CONVERTED BY 14 — SO THAT’S 14-1 TO THE DOLLAR. BUT NEVERTHELESS, 670 INCREASE IN PUBLIC SAFETY SPENDING. THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY IS PART OF SOUTH AFRICA’S SECURITY SYSTEM AND THE ROLE ENHANCING THE STATE’S STABILITY WITH QUESTIONS BEGINNING TO BE RAISED ABOUT EARLY SIGNS OF POSSIBLE RISING TENSIONS IN THE COUNTRY. IN THE 1970s, SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE BEGAN TO REDUCE THE CONVENTIONAL POLICING FUNCTIONS INSIDE SOUTH AFRICA. IT BEGINS TO FOCUS THE RESOURCES ON SUPPRESSING AND CONTAINING THE INSIGHTS IN SOUTH AFRICA. AND PFCs BEGIN TO FILL THE VOID AS A RESULT OF THE SHIFTING POLICE PRIORITIES. SUCH AS GUARDING PROPERTY FOR PAYING CLIENTS, GUARDING STRATEGIC INSTALLATION AND GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, AND ARMED RESPONSE UNITS TO HOMES AND BUSINESSES. ACTS OF VIOLENCE BY THE LIBERATION FORCES ESCALATED, THE PREVALENCE OF PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES INCREASED AT AP AVERAGE ANNUAL RATE OF 30% SINCE THE LATE 1970s. ACCORDING TO THE SOUTH AFRICA STUDENT OF RACE RELATIONS, THE GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY CAN BE DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE POLICE WITHDRAWING FROM SOME OF THE TRADITIONAL FUNCTIONS. PRIVATE PROPERTY INCREASING USED BY THE PUBLIC SUCH AS SHOPPING MALLS AND THE PERCEPTION THAT THE POLICE ARE UNABLE TO PROTECT THE PUBLIC EFFECTIVELY. A CULMINATION AT THE END OF THE COLD WAR IN 1989 AND 1990 AND THE TRANSITION OF THE DEMOCRACY IN 1994 IN SOUTH AFRICA CONTRIBUTED TO THE FURTHER RISE OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN PFC ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE AND INSIDE THE BORDERS OF SOUTH AFRICA. WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE END OF THE COLD WAR AND PAST INVOLVEMENT IN MILITARY EXCURSIONS IN NEIGHBORING STATES AND STATES FURTHER AFIELD, A LARGE NUMBER OF PEOPLE OF COUNTERINSURGENCY IN SOUTH AFRICA AND MANY EARNERS HAD MILITARY, POLICE, AND INTELLIGENCE TRAINING AND POLICE AND EXPERIENCE. MOREOVER, THE END OF THE COLD WAR INTRODUCED A PHASE WHEN COUNTRIES CUT BACK ON MILITARY BUDGETS AND REDUCED THE BUDGETS WORLDWIDE BY AN ESTIMATED 6 MILLION PEOPLE. THIS RESULTED IN AN OVERSUPPLY OF TRAINED SOLDIERS WHO ARE NOT QUITE READY TO JOIN CIVILIAN LIFE AND FOUND THEMSELVES CONTRIBUTING TO THE BURGEONING GROWTH OF THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. IN 1989, QUITE A FEW SA SPECIAL FORCES WERE ASSIGNED TO THE POLICE TO ASSIST WITH COUNTERING TRENDS OF NATIONAL CRIME AND ENDED UP GOING UNDERCOVER FOR THE POLICE. AFTER MEETING WITH DE BEERS, AND ANGLO AMERICAN SECURITY MANAGERS WHO INQUIRED HOW HE WAS ABLE TO SUCCESSFULLY INFILTRATE CRIME SYNDICATES, HE WAS CONTRACTED TO SET UP FOR DE BEERS IN BOTSWANA TO INFILTRATE THE DIAMOND CRIME SYNDICATES AND CARTELS. THIS INDICATES THAT THE STATUTORY SECURITY ACTIVES COULD NOT MEET THE SECURITY NEEDS. EXECUTIVE OUTCOMES WAS ESTABLISHED TO TRAIN SOUTH AFRICAN’S SPECIAL FORCES IN COVERT OPERATIONS. SUBSEQUENT TO ’94, SEVERAL AMC AND MEMBERS JOINED THE RANKS OF EO AND WORKED ALONGSIDE THE ENEMIES IN AFRICA AND IN THE FAR EAST. THE UNFORTUNATE LOSS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN DEFENSE FORCE. THE POLICE SUFFERED THE SAME FATE AS THE MILITARY IN SOUTH AFRICA AFTER DEMOCRACY WAS ESTABLISHED. CERTAIN CRIME UNITS, CERTAIN UNITS SUCH AS THE ORGANIZED CRIME UNIT AND NARCOTIC UNIT WERE SHUT DOWN AS THEY WERE DEEMED SUE PER FLOWS. THIS IS IN THE LOSS OF SPECIALIZED RECEIVED SKILLS. THE POLICE RECEIVED SPECIAL TRAINING FROM THE BRITISH METROPOLITAN POLICE AND THE FBI TRAINED WITH WHAT WAS KNOWN AS THE SCORPIONS. THE SCORPIONS RAPIDLY DEGENERATED INTO A CRIME SYNDICATE UNTIL THE SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT WAS FORCED TO SHUT THEM DOWN. THE SCORPIONS WERE REPLACED BY THE HAWKS WHICH TRIED TO FOLLOW THE BRITISH METHOD OF POLICING AND AS A SPECIAL INVESTIGATIVE UNIT THAT FOLLOWS A QUAYS PSI FBI APPROACH WHICH NONE CAN OPERATE IN SOUTH AFRICA BECAUSE WE’RE NOT NEW ENGLAND AND WE’RE NOT THE UNITED STATES. THE RESULT OF THE MANIPULATION OF THE MILITARY AND THE POLICE BY THE ALLIES HAS RESULTED IN THOUSANDS OF EX-MILITARY AND POLICE WHO EITHER STARTED THE EARNED SECURITY COMPANIES OR JOINED AN EXISTING PFC WHERE THEY COULD APPLY THEIR SKILLS. ANOTHER SECURITY AREA OF CONCERN FOR SOUTH AFRICA IS THE LOSS OF THE INTELLIGENCE CAPABILITIES. PFC’S PERFORM SOME SERVICES ON BEHALF OF THE POLICE AND THE INTELLIGENCE SERVICES BECAUSE THEY DO NOT ALWAYS HAVE TO HAVE THE CAPABILITY. THEY TURN TO THE SECURITY TO PROVIDE THE PLATFORM OF APPARENT STABILITY AND SECURITY SO THEY CAN RUN THE OPERATIONS AS THEY SHOULD, BECAUSE THEY CAN NO LONGER RELY ON THE POLICE TO DO IT. SOUTH AFRICAN CITIZENS AND BUSINESSES SPEND AROUND 6 BILLION RAND, AROUND 450 USD ANNUALLY ON PRIVATE SECURITY BECAUSE I FEEL THAT THE GOVERNMENT DOES NOT DO ENOUGH TO KEEP THEM AND THEIR PROPERTY SAFE IN THE CLIMATE OF HIGH CRIME RATES, VERY HIGH CRIME RATES. ACCORDING TO A FORM SHADOW MINISTER OF POLICE AND A COMMITTEE ON POLICE, MORE AND MORE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS, STATE ENTITIES, AND EVEN STATE SECURITY AGENCIES AND THE POLICE THEMSELVES, USED PRIVATE SECURITY FIRMS. THE RISE OF THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY MAY CERTAINLY EXPLAIN IN PART OBSERVED IMPROVEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA’S SFR MEASURES, HOWEVER, WHEN ONE LOOKS AT ONE OF THE INDICATORS OF LATENT STATE FRAGILEITIES THAT I PRO PROPOSED, SUCH AS HIGH CRIME RATES, AND LATENT HIGH CRIME SECURITY, IT APPEARS THE GROWTH HAS NOT HAD A MEANINGFUL IMPACT ON THE GAPS THAT HAD THE SECURITY SYSTEM. THE FACT THAT MANY OF THE SECURITY CHALLENGES RESIDE IN AFRICA AND SOUTH AFRICA REPRESENTS A POTENTIALLY SIGNIFICANT REGIONAL PARTNER, IN EFFORTS TO ADDRESS THEM, IT MEANS ANY NATION OF THE STATE’S FRAGILITY IN SOUTH AFRICA COULD BODE ILL FOR MUCH OF THE AFRICAN CONTINENT. ALSO, SOUTH AFRICA HAS RECEIVED RECOGNITION AS A SIGNIFICANT REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEADER BY JOINING BIZOLE, RUSSIA, INDIA, AND CHINA BY FORMING THE BLOCK IN ITS BRICKS. IT’S A PIVOTAL STATE FOR THE UNITED STATES STRATEGY IN AFRICA. MOREOVER, SOUTH AFRICA HAS BECOME THE SECOND STRONGEST ECONOMY IN AFRICA. ACCORDING TO THE SFR, ONE OF THE TOP STABLE STATES, AS SUCH, SOUTH AFRICA HAS BECOME A PIVOTAL STATE BEYOND THE AFRICAN CONTINENT WHICH MEANS IT’S BECOME SO IMPORTANT THAT THE COLLAPSE WOULD SPELL TRANSBOUNDARY LAND, MIGRATION, VIOLENCE, POLLUTION, DISEASE, AND SO ON. AS PUBLICLY STATE STEADY ECONOMIC PROGRESS AND STABILITY WOULD BOLSTER THE VITALITY AND POLITICAL SOUNDNESS AND BENEFIT TRADE AND INVESTMENT. TODAY, WITH THE NUMBER OF PRIVATE SECURITY OFFICES OUTNUMBERING THE POLICE 3-1, MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC ARE MORE LIKELY TO ENCOUNTER A PRIVATE SECURITY OFFICER THAN A MEMBER OF THE POLICE. ORGANIZED RESTRUCTURING, POORLY MANAGED AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND BLACK ECONOMIC POWER POLICIES, LACK OF STABILITY CAPABILITY, AND RESOURCES HAVE NEGATIVELY AFFECTED THE LEVEL OF QUALITY AND SERVICE THAT THE POLICE PROVIDE. THE OUTSOURCING OF SOME OF THE CORE SECURITY FUNCTIONS SUCH AS INTELLIGENCE AND FORENSICS ARE EVIDENCE OF THESE NEGATIVE EFFECTS. PART OF THE INCREASE IN GROWTH IN THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY IS THE FACT THAT THE POLICE IN THE SECURITY FUNCTIONS AS MENTIONED SUCH AS THE INTELLIGENCE, CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS, AND FORENSICS. THIS TAKES PLACE BECAUSE THE POLICE HAVE LOST THE CAPACITY TO PROVIDE SUCH SERVICES OR AT LEAST HAVE BEEN PERCEIVED BY THE GENERAL PUBLIC TO HAVE DONE SO. A FURTHER INDICTMENT OF POLICE PERFORMANCE APPEARS TO COME FROM THE ANALYSIS DONE BY THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF RACE RELATIONS SHOWING THAT 1.3 MILLION CRIMES WENT UNREPORTED IN SOUTH AFRICA IN 2015 WHICH MEANS THAT OF THE 263 — OF THE 2.63 MILLION CRIMES COMMITTED IN 2015, ONLY 51% WERE REPORTED, INDICATING A LACK OF PUBLIC TRUST IN THE POLICE’S ABILITY TO EFFECTIVELY PROVIDE PERSONAL AND COMMUNITY SECURITY. UNREPORTED CRIME TO THE POLICE IS CAPTURED BY THE STATS, SA VICTIM SURVEY. IF THE SECURITY SYSTEM IN CONCLUSION IS NOT INCLUSIVE, IS PARTIALLY CORRUPT, IS UNRESPONSIVE, IS INCOHERENT, IS INEFFECTIVE, AND INEFFICIENT, AND/OR UNACCOUNTABLE TO THE PUBLIC, THEN WE HAVE A SECURITY SYSTEM DEFICIT. THE SECURITY SYSTEM IS NOT INCLUSIVE WHEN IT SERVES ONLY CERTAIN SEGMENTS AND NOT THE WHOLE POPULATION. HE’S PARTIAL TO SERVING SOME WEALTHY COMMUNITIES WELL WHILE NEGLECTING OTHER POORER COMMUNITIES. AND JUST A FEW STATS TO SHARE WITH YOU REAL QUICK, I DON’T KNOW IF THE PRICE IN THE UNITED STATES PICKED THIS UP ON 16th OF AUGUST, 2012. 24 AFRICANS WERE SHOT DEAD BECAUSE THEY WERE PROTESTING THEIR WORKING CONDITIONS AND PAY, THEY WANTED PAY INCREASES. WE HAD APPROXIMATELY 3,000 SERVICE DELIVERY PROGRESS THROUGHOUT THE MONTH IN THAT COUNTRY AT THAT STAGE. THIS IS THE GOVERNMENT THAT DELETED THIS CAUSE. THERE WAS AMERICANA INQUIRY AND THEY DELETED THIS SPECIFIC CLAUSE SO AS TO VEIL THE GOVERNMENT’S COMPLICITY AT WHAT TOOK PLACE AT MARACONA. THE DEFICIT THAT I FOUND, A FLAWED APPLICATION OF IDENTITY-GROUP BASED PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT POLICIES. A BACKLOG IN COURT CASES, WE LACK ALTERNATIVE MECHANISMS. A LACK OF PUBLIC TRUST. AN ABUSE OF POWER FROM THE POLICE, THE DEPLOYMENT WHICH IS NOT VERY EFFECTIVE. WE HAVE A LOT OF SPECIALIST EXPERTISE, LOSS OF CONTROL OVER TERRITORY, AND THE CORRUPTION OF THE POLICE IN THE GENERAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IS HIGH. I USED INVIVO. DURING MY INTERVIEWS, I INTERVIEWED 45 EXPERTS IN THE FIELD, AND I SPENT ABOUT TWO HOURS EACH WITH EACH ONE OF THEM. I HAVE A LOT OF DATA. THESE OVERARCHING THEMES THAT COME OUT OF THE INTERVIEWS IS GOOD GOVERNANCE AND SA INSECURITY. CORRUPTION OF THE GOVERNMENT, NEW SOCIAL DIVIDE, SOCIAL ECONOMIC SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES, GROWTH OF THE PRIVATE SECURITY AND CHALLENGES AND THE POLICE LACK OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY CAME OUT VERY STRONG. OPTIMAL POLICE LEADERSHIP. HERE IS — HERE IS WHAT I EVENTUALLY COME UP WITH. HIGH VIOLENT CRIME, SERVICE DELIVERY AND INDEMOCRATIC CORRUPTION, AND THE GROUP IDENTITY — IDENTITY GROUP BASED PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT AND SOCIAL DISPARITIES ARE ALL THREATS TO PERSONAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL SECURITY. AND THESE ARE THE NONTRADITIONAL INDICATORS AS I MENTIONED IN THE BEGINNING THAT INDICATE LATENT STATE FRAGILITY. SO WHEN WE HAVE DIRECT VIOLENCE AND STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE MEASURES PRESENT SUCH AS THOSE ON THE SLIDE, MY ANSWER TO THE QUESTION IS SOUTH AFRICA LATENTLY FRAGILE, IT’S AN EMPHATIC YES. SORRY I TOOK SO LONG. I DIDN’T COVER EVERYTHING I WANTED TO. SO WE’RE OPEN FOR Q&A. [ APPLAUSE ]>>WE HAVE TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS.>>I THINK EVERYBODY IS HUNGRY. THEY HEARD ENOUGH. MY WATER HERE. >>I’M GOING TO KICK THIS OFF THEN. SO YOU MENTIONED OBVIOUSLY THE LOSS OF EXPERTISE AND CONTINUITY AS SOME OF THE CONCERNS. I’M CURIOUS IN YOUR RESEARCH, WERE THERE ANY EXAMPLES OF THE PMCs IN SOUTH AFRICA USING THEIR ADVANTAGEOUS POSITION TO INFLUENCE NATIONAL POLICY OR STRATEGY?>>YEAH. YEAH, THERE’S A VACUUM THERE. THE PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES. WE HAVE A REGULATORY AUTHORITY. IT’S CALLED THE PRIVATE SECURITY AUTHORITY THAT TRIES TO CONTROL OR REGULATE AND LEGISLATE THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. AND JUST HISTORICALLY, I THINK THEY ARE BEING VIEWED BY THE GOVERNMENT AS SUSPICIOUS, YOU KNOW? BECAUSE OF OUR HISTORY. IT’S GOING TO TAKE A GENERATION FOR THAT TO SETTLE DOWN. THAT’S AN INTERESTING QUESTION, SHARON. THERE SHOULD BE COLLABORATION. AS A MATTER OF FACT, I DIDN’T HAVE TIME TODAY. BUT I COME UP WITH A LOT OF POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT TO CONSIDER. THAT’S ONE OF THEM. AND THE OTHER IS A FUNCTIONAL INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY SHOULD PLAY A ROLE IN THE VETTING OF PRIVATE MILITARY AND SECURITY COMPANIES AS WELL. SO THERE ISN’T AN ABSOLUTE NEED TO WORK TOGETHER. HOPEFULLY THE DAY WILL COME SOONER RATHER THAN LATER.>>IS THERE ANY DATA AVAILABLE ON THE ETHNIC AND RACIAL COMPOSITIONS OF BOTH THE POLICE FORCE AND THE PMCs?>>THAT’S AN INTERESTING QUESTION. NOT THAT I KNOW OF. WE HAVE — WE’VE BEEN FORTUNATE. WE HAVE 11 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES AND NINE DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS IN ADDITION TO THE WHITE POPULATION, PEOPLE OF MIXED MARRIAGES AND ALSO FROM ASIA. UNTIL NOW, WE HAVEN’T SEEN ANYTHING, ANY FACTORS INDICATING ETHNIC TENSIONS. THE MAJORITY OF THE NEW DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT THAT CAME FROM ’94 CAME FROM THE GROUP, NELSON MANDELA WAS THAT GROUP. THE LARGEST ETHNIC GROUP IN SOUTH AFRICA ARE COMPLETELY UNDERREPRESENTED IN GOVERNMENT, IN NATIONAL GOVERNMENT. JACOB ZUNA, NO LONGER OUR PRIME MINISTER, OUR PRESIDENT, IS FROM THE ZULU NATION. AND THERE WERE INDICATIONS OF PUTTING ZULUS TO STRATEGIC NATIONAL SECURITY POSITIONS IN THE COMMUNITY AND THE SECURITY COMM COMMUNITY. SO, I WAS WATCHING IT FROM AFAR TO SEE IF IT WOULD BE A TRIGGER FOR POTENTIAL ETHNIC TENSIONS. I HAVE NOT SEEN IT YET, BUT I HEAR THAT THERE’S THE — THERE MAY BE A POTENTIAL. SO I HOPE WE STAY AWAY FROM THAT, YOU KNOW? SOUTH AFRICA IS AN INTERESTING PLACE, COMPLEX. IT’S A NATION THAT HAS THE LARGEST TRIBE, IF I MAY SAY THAT, ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT. AND I THINK ALL OF THAT MIXTURE MAKES IT A VERY RICH ENVIRONMENT TO HAVE SUCCESS. AND SO THAT’S WHY I COME UP WITH RECOMMENDATIONS IN MY STUDY. TO SEE HOW WE CAN MOVE FORWARD IN A POSITIVE WAY. WE HAD SOME DISTURBING ELEMENTS THAT I PICKED UH UP IN MY FIELD RESEARCH. ERIC?>>COULD YOU COMMENT ON MOLINA AND THE ECONOMIC FREEDOM FIGHTERS AND HIS PRESSURE ON RAM AFOZA WHO’S NOT ZULU OR — HE’S A POLITICAL ORPHAN. WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR WHITE FARMERS?>>50 I’M IMPRESSED WITH YOUR KNOWLEDGE THERE. OUR PRESENT PRESIDENT IS FROM THE VENDAR GROUP, WHICH IS A VERY SMALL — YEAH. SO THE LEADER OF THE ECONOMIC FREEDOM FIGHTERS. THERE’S NOTHING ECONOMIC ABOUT THEM, THERE’S NOTHING FREE ABOUT THEM. IT’S ALL ABOUT FIGHTING IS WHAT I CAN SEE FROM A DISTANCE. AND HE APPEALS TO THE UNEMPLOYED. THE YOUTH THAT I MENTIONED EARLIER IN MY TALK. 15 TO 25-YEAR-OLDS THAT ARE 16% UNE UNEMPLOYED. THAT’S A TERRIBLE SITUATION TO BE IN. IF YOU CAN’T FIND EMPLOYMENT, YOU’RE LOOKING FOR EMPLOYMENT, YOU NEED TO SURVIVE SOMEHOW. SO WITH THE RHETORIC, WHICH IS FOR MUCH AND MY SOUTH AFRICAN COLLEAGUES CAN HELP ME OUT WHO ARE THERE, IS ANTI-NC — HE WANTS TO TAKE OVER. HE WAS THE LEADER OF THE ANC YOUTH LEAGUE UNTIL HE GOT KICKED OUT BY JACOB ZUMA, THE PRESIDENT OF THE TIME, NOT ONLY OF SOUTH AFRICA, BUT ALSO AS THE ANC AS A PARTY. SO THERE’S BAD BLOOD BETWEEN THE TWO. AND SO MALEMA HAS BECOME VERY HOSTILE. HIT’S BECOME MILITANT. AND HE HAS ISRAELIS AND TO THE ONE BULLET TO ONE FARMER. THIS KIND OF RHETORIC IS NOT GOOD TO NATION BUILDING. HE’S NOW THE THIRD LARGEST POLITICAL PARTY IN SOUTH AFRICA, THE EFF. I KNOW IT’S A PROBLEM FOR THE ANC. IT’S CERTAINLY A PROBLEM FOR THE OFFICIAL OPPOSITION OF THE DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE. AND SO I THINK I’VE ADDRESSED THE THING ABOUT THE FARM MURDERS. THEY ARE PUSHING THE RHETORIC. THEY WANT — THERE’S A — THERE’S A PUSH FOR THIS MENTOR TO REMOVE THE WHITE FARMERS OFF OF THE LAND WHICH TRADITIONALLY BELONG TO THE BLACK AFRICANS IS WHAT MALEMA IS PUSHING. AND SO HE IS HERE AS HIS AUDIENCE ARE ACTUALLY EXECUTING ON THAT. AND — AND AS I SAID, WE NEED A MECHANISM IN PLACE TO PROTECT CERTAINLY AN IMPORTANT PART OF OUR ECONOMY AND THE FARMING. I — I’M LOOKING FOR THE POSITIVE SIGNS. DID THAT ANSWER SOME OF YOUR QUESTION? OKAY. I’VE GOT A — THAT’S GOING TO BE LUNCH WILLTIME. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR LISTENING.>>I LIKE TO THANK DR. MINNIE FOR A GREAT DISCUSSION.TIME. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR LISTENING.>>I LIKE TO THANK DR. MINNIE FOR A GREAT DISCUSSION.TIME. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR LISTENING.>>I LIKE TO THANK DR. MINNIE FOR A GREAT DISCUSSION.TIME. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR LISTENING.>>I LIKE TO THANK DR. MINNIE FOR A GREAT DISCUSSION.TIME. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR LISTENING.>>I LIKE TO THANK DR. MINNIE FOR A GREAT DISCUSSION. [ APPLAUSE ]>>ALL RIGHT, NEXT EVENT IS LUNCH. AND SO THERE’S A FEW OPTIONS HERE. FIRST OF ALL, ALL OF OUR SPEAKERS AND PANELISTS AND OTHER SPECIAL GUESTS THAT WE HAD AT THE DINNER LAST NIGHT ARE WELCOME TO JOIN US FOR LUNCH IN THE BREAK ROOM. SECOND IS THAT WE HAVE A WHITE VAN TO BE PARKED OUT FRONT HERE TO SHUTTLE PEOPLE DOWNTOWN IF YOU WANT TO GO DOWNTOWN. IF YOU WANT TO USE YOUR VEHICLE, YOU CAN — CAN’T GUARANTEE YOU A PARKING SPACE WHEN YOU GET BACK. IF YOU’D LIKE TO EAT IN A DINING FACILITY, IT’S A LITTLE LESS THAN A THREE-MINUTE WALK. OH IF YOU WERE TO LOOK OUT THE WINDOWS HERE, YOU SEE THE GOLD STEEPLE. IF YOU WERE TO EXIT THE BACK DOORS HERE, GO DOWN THE HALLWAY TO YOUR — GO DOWN THE HALLWAY TO THIS END AND GO DOWN THE STAIRS, YOU’LL EXIT AND YOU’LL SEE THE GOLD STEEPING JUST WALK TOWARDS THE GOLD STEEPING UNTIL YOU HIT THE DRILL FIELD AND THEN LOOK TO THE LEFT AND THE DINING FACILITY IS RIGHT THERE. WE NEED EVERYONE BACK, PLEASE, IN YOUR SEATS BY 1340, BY 1:40 P.M. AND DR.S WELLES, HAMILTON, MINNIE, WILL MEET AT THE LUNCH TABLE TO DISCUSS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASSEY AND THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH GEORGIA. ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS? SO SHUTTLE OUT BACK, WALK, DRIVE, AND THEN GUESTS IN THE — IN THE BREAK ROOM. THANK YOU. DON’T FORGET THAT WE HAVE BOOKS FOR SALE IN THE BACK OF THE ROOM TOO THROUGHOUT THE LUNCH PERIOD.

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