Union (American Civil War) | Wikipedia audio article

During the American Civil War (1861–1865),
the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically
to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as
4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and
south) that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states (or 13, according
to the Southern view and one western territory) that formed the Confederate States of America,
also known as “the Confederacy” or “the South”. All of the Union’s states provided soldiers
for the United States Army (also known as the Union Army), though the border areas also
sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy. The Border states were essential
as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, and Lincoln realized he could
not win the war without control of them, especially Maryland, which lay north of the national
capital of Washington, D.C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial
resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well
as financing for the war. The Midwest provided soldiers, food, horses, financial support,
and training camps. Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican
Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion
in 1863–64. The Democratic Party strongly supported the war at the beginning in 1861
but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the “Copperheads”.
The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New
York. They lost ground in 1863, especially in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned
under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers
and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate
George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of
the Potomac. The war years were quite prosperous except
where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity
was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national
banking system. The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing
psychological and social support for soldiers’ wives, widows, and orphans, and for the soldiers
themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order
to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states
and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities, especially New York
City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such
as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania.==Etymology==In the context of the American Civil War,
the Union is sometimes referred to as “the North”, both then and now, as opposed to the
Confederacy, which was “the South”. The Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy’s
secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United
States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all
other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government. The term “Union”
occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation
and Perpetual Union. The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name
not of the states, but of “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more
perfect Union …”. Union, for the United States of America, is then repeated in such
clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3.
Even before the war started, the phrase “preserve the Union” was commonplace, and a “union of
states” had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term “Union”
to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation
of the pre-existing political entity.Confederates generally saw the Union states as being opposed
to slavery, occasionally referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U.S.
Navy as the “Abolition fleet” and the U.S. Army as the “Abolition forces”.==Size and strength==Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large
industrialized and urbanized area (the Northeast), and more advanced commercial, transportation
and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower
advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control
of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its
growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union
strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, and to protect railroads and other
vital points. The Union’s great advantages in population and industry would prove to
be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union
a long while to fully mobilize these resources.==Public opinion==
The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian,
Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling
crystallization of Northern sentiment … Anger swept the land. From every side came news
of mass meetings, speeches, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies
and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures.
McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder
at the near unanimity that so quickly followed long months of bitterness and discord. It
would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or even through the year – but
in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism usually hidden
by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena.”
Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war ground on year after year, the spirit
of American republicanism grew stronger and generated fears of corruption in high places.
Voters became afraid of power being centralized in Washington, extravagant spending, and war
profiteering. Democratic candidates emphasized these fears. The candidates added that rapid
modernization was putting too much political power in the hands of Eastern financiers and
industrialists. They warned that the abolition of slavery would bring a flood of freed blacks
into the labor market of the North. Republicans responded with claims of defeatism.
They indicted Copperheads for criminal conspiracies to free Confederate prisoners of war, and
played on the spirit of nationalism and the growing hatred of the slaveowners, as the
guilty party in the war.==President Lincoln==Historians have overwhelmingly praised the
“political genius” of Abraham Lincoln’s performance as President. His first priority was military
victory. This required that he master entirely new skills as a strategist and diplomat. He
oversaw supplies, finances, manpower, the selection of generals, and the course of overall
strategy. Working closely with state and local politicians, he rallied public opinion and
(at Gettysburg) articulated a national mission that has defined America ever since. Lincoln’s
charm and willingness to cooperate with political and personal enemies made Washington work
much more smoothly than Richmond, the Confederate capital, and his wit smoothed many rough edges.
Lincoln’s cabinet proved much stronger and more efficient than Davis’s, as Lincoln channeled
personal rivalries into a competition for excellence rather than mutual destruction.
With William Seward at State, Salmon P. Chase at the Treasury, and (from 1862) Edwin Stanton
at the War Department, Lincoln had a powerful cabinet of determined men. Except for monitoring
major appointments and decisions, Lincoln gave them free rein to end the Confederate
The Republican Congress passed many major laws that reshaped the nation’s economy, financial
system, tax system, land system, and higher education system. These included: the Morrill
tariff, the Homestead Act, the Pacific Railroad Act, and the National Banking Act. Lincoln
paid relatively little attention to this legislation as he focused on war issues but he worked
smoothly with powerful Congressional leaders such as Thaddeus Stevens (on taxation and
spending), Charles Sumner (on foreign affairs), Lyman Trumbull (on legal issues), Justin Smith
Morrill (on land grants and tariffs) and William Pitt Fessenden (on finances).Military and
reconstruction issues were another matter. Lincoln, as the leader of the moderate and
conservative factions of the Republican Party, often crossed swords with the Radical Republicans,
led by Stevens and Sumner. Author, Bruce Tap, shows that Congress challenged Lincoln’s role
as commander-in-chief through the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. It was a joint
committee of both houses that was dominated by the Radical Republicans, who took a hard
line against the Confederacy. During the 37th and 38th Congresses, the committee investigated
every aspect of Union military operations, with special attention to finding commanders
culpable for military defeats. It assumed an inevitable Union victory. Failure was perceived
to indicate evil motivations or personal failures. The committee distrusted graduates of the
US Military Academy at West Point, since many of the academy’s alumni were leaders of the
enemy army. Members of the committee much preferred political generals with a satisfactory
political record. Some of the committee suggested that West-Pointers who engaged in strategic
maneuver were cowardly or even disloyal. It ended up endorsing incompetent but politically
correct generals.===Opposition===The opposition came from Copperhead Democrats,
who were strongest in the Midwest and wanted to allow Confederate secession. In the East,
opposition to the war was strongest among Irish Catholics, but also included business
interests connected to the South typified by August Belmont. The Democratic Party was
deeply split. In 1861 most Democrats supported the war. However, the party increasingly split
down the middle between the moderates who supported the war effort, and the peace element,
including Copperheads, who did not. It scored major gains in the 1862 elections, and elected
the moderate Horatio Seymour as governor of New York. They gained 28 seats in the House
of Representatives but Republicans retained control of both the House and the Senate. The 1862 election for the Indiana legislature
was especially hard-fought. Though the Democrats gained control of the legislature, they were
unable to impede the war effort. Republican Governor Oliver P. Morton was able to maintain
control of the state’s contribution to the war effort despite the Democrat majority.
Washington was especially helpful in 1864 in arranging furloughs to allow Hoosier soldiers
to return home so they could vote in elections. Across the North in 1864, the great majority
of soldiers voted Republican. Men who had been Democrats before the war often abstained
or voted Republican.As the federal draft laws tightened, there was serious unrest among
Copperhead strongholds, such as the Irish in the Pennsylvania coal mining districts.
The government needed the coal more than the draftees, so it ignored the largely non-violent
draft dodging there. The violent New York City draft riots of 1863 were suppressed by
the U.S. Army firing grape shot down cobblestone city streets.The Democrats nominated George
McClellan, a War Democrat for the 1864 presidential election but gave him an anti-war platform.
In terms of Congress the opposition against the war was nearly powerless – as was the
case in most states. In Indiana and Illinois pro-war governors circumvented anti-war legislatures
elected in 1862. For 30 years after the war the Democrats carried the burden of having
opposed the martyred Lincoln, who was viewed by many as the salvation of the Union and
the destroyer of slavery.===Copperheads===The Copperheads were a large faction of northern
Democrats who opposed the war, demanding an immediate peace settlement. They said they
wanted to restore “the Union as it was” (that is, with the South and with slavery) but they
realized that the Confederacy would never voluntarily rejoin the U.S. The most prominent
Copperhead was Ohio’s Clement L. Vallandigham, a Congressman and leader of the Democratic
Party in Ohio. He was defeated in an intense election for governor in 1863. Republican
prosecutors in the Midwest accused some Copperhead activists of treason in a series of trials
in 1864.Copperheadism was a grassroots movement, strongest in the area just north of the Ohio
River, as well as some urban ethnic wards. Some historians have argued that it represented
a traditionalistic element alarmed at the rapid modernization of society sponsored by
the Republican Party. It looked back to Jacksonian Democracy for inspiration – with ideals
that promoted an agrarian rather than industrialized concept of society. Weber (2006) argues that
the Copperheads damaged the Union war effort by fighting the draft, encouraging desertion
and forming conspiracies. However, other historians say the Copperheads were a legitimate opposition
force unfairly treated by the government, adding that the draft was in disrepute and
that the Republicans greatly exaggerated the conspiracies for partisan reasons. Copperheadism
was a major issue in the 1864 presidential election – its strength waxed when Union
armies were doing poorly and waned when they won great victories. After the fall of Atlanta
in September 1864, military success seemed assured and Copperheadism collapsed.==Soldiers=====Recruiting volunteers===Enthusiastic young men clamored to join the
Union army in 1861. They came with family support for reasons of patriotism and excitement.
Washington decided to keep the small regular army intact; it only had 16,000 men and was
needed to guard the frontier. Its officers could, however, join the temporary new volunteer
army that was formed, with expectations that their experience would lead to rapid promotions.
The problem with volunteering, however, was its serious lack of planning, leadership,
and organization at the highest levels. Washington called on the states for troops, and every
northern governor set about raising and equipping regiments, and sent the bills to the War Department.
The men could elect the junior officers, while the governor appointed the senior officers,
and Lincoln appointed the generals. Typically, politicians used their local organizations
to raise troops and were in line (if healthy enough) to become colonel. The problem was
that the War Department, under the disorganized leadership of Simon Cameron, also authorized
local and private groups to raise regiments. The result was widespread confusion and delay.
Pennsylvania, for example, had acute problems. When Washington called for 10 more regiments,
enough men volunteered to form 30. However, they were scattered among 70 different new
units, none of them a complete regiment. Not until Washington approved gubernatorial control
of all new units was the problem resolved. Allan Nevins is particularly scathing of this
in his analysis: “A President more exact, systematic and vigilant than Lincoln, a Secretary
more alert and clearheaded than Cameron, would have prevented these difficulties.” By the end of 1861, 700,000 soldiers were
drilling in Union camps. The first wave in spring was called up for only 90 days, then
the soldiers went home or reenlisted. Later waves enlisted for three years.
The new recruits spent their time drilling in company and regiment formations. The combat
in the first year, though strategically important, involved relatively small forces and few casualties.
Sickness was a much more serious cause of hospitalization or death.
In the first few months, men wore low quality uniforms made of “shoddy” material, but by
fall, sturdy wool uniforms—in blue—were standard. The nation’s factories were converted
to produce the rifles, cannons, wagons, tents, telegraph sets, and the myriad of other special
items the army needed. While business had been slow or depressed
in spring 1861, because of war fears and Southern boycotts, by fall business was hiring again,
offering young men jobs that were an alternative way to help win the war. Nonpartisanship was
the rule in the first year, but by summer 1862, many Democrats had stopped supporting
the war effort, and volunteering fell off sharply in their strongholds.
The calls for more and more soldiers continued, so states and localities responded by offering
cash bonuses. By 1863, a draft law was in effect, but few men actually were drafted
and served, since the law was designed to get them to volunteer or hire a substitute.
Others hid away or left the country. With the Emancipation Proclamation taking effect
in January 1863, localities could meet their draft quota by sponsoring regiments of ex-slaves
organized in the South. Michigan was especially eager to send thousands
of volunteers. A study of the cities of Grand Rapids and Niles shows an overwhelming surge
of nationalism in 1861, whipping up enthusiasm for the war in all segments of society, and
all political, religious, ethnic, and occupational groups. However, by 1862 the casualties were
mounting, and the war was increasingly focused on freeing the slaves in addition to preserving
the Union. Copperhead Democrats called the war a failure, and it became an increasingly
partisan Republican effort. Michigan voters remained evenly split between the parties
in the presidential election of 1864.====Motivations of soldiers====
Perman (2010) says historians are of two minds on why millions of men seemed so eager to
fight, suffer, and die over four years: Some historians emphasize that Civil War soldiers
were driven by political ideology, holding firm beliefs about the importance of liberty,
Union, or state rights, or about the need to protect or to destroy slavery. Others point
to less overtly political reasons to fight, such as the defense of one’s home and family,
or the honor and brotherhood to be preserved when fighting alongside other men. Most historians
agree that, no matter what he thought about when he went into the war, the experience
of combat affected him profoundly and sometimes affected his reasons for continuing to fight.====The paperwork war====
On the whole, the national, state, and local governments handled the avalanche of paperwork
effectively. Skills developed in insurance and financial companies formed the basis of
systematic forms, copies, summaries, and filing systems used to make sense of masses of human
data. The leader in this effort, John Shaw Billings, later developed a system of mechanically
storing, sorting, and counting numerical information using punch cards. Nevertheless, old-fashioned
methodology had to be recognized and overcome. An illustrative case study came in New Hampshire,
where the critical post of state adjutant general was held in 1861–64 by elderly politician
Anthony C. Colby (1792–1873) and his son Daniel E. Colby (1816–1891). They were patriotic,
but were overwhelmed with the complexity of their duties. The state lost track of men
who enlisted after 1861; it had no personnel records or information on volunteers, substitutes,
or draftees, and there was no inventory of weaponry and supplies. Nathaniel Head (1828–1883)
took over in 1864, obtained an adequate budget and office staff, and reconstructed the missing
paperwork. As result, widows, orphans, and disabled veterans received the postwar payments
they had earned.===Medical conditions===More soldiers died of disease than from battle
injuries, and even larger numbers were temporarily incapacitated by wounds, disease, and accidents.
The Union responded by building army hospitals in every state.
The hygiene of the camps was poor, especially at the beginning of the war when men who had
seldom been far from home were brought together for training with thousands of strangers.
First came epidemics of the childhood diseases of chicken pox, mumps, whooping cough, and
especially, measles. Operations in the South meant a dangerous and new disease environment,
bringing diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, and malaria. There were no antibiotics, so
the surgeons prescribed coffee, whiskey, and quinine. Harsh weather, bad water, inadequate
shelter in winter quarters, poor policing of camps, and dirty camp hospitals took their
toll. This was a common scenario in wars from time immemorial, and conditions faced by the
Confederate army were even worse. What was different in the Union was the emergence of
skilled, well-funded medical organizers who took proactive action, especially in the much
enlarged United States Army Medical Department, and the United States Sanitary Commission,
a new private agency. Numerous other new agencies also targeted the medical and morale needs
of soldiers, including the United States Christian Commission, as well as smaller private agencies,
such as the Women’s Central Association of Relief for Sick and Wounded in the Army (WCAR),
founded in 1861 by Henry Whitney Bellows, a Unitarian minister, and the social reformer
Dorothea Dix. Systematic funding appeals raised public consciousness as well as millions of
dollars. Many thousands of volunteers worked in the hospitals and rest homes, most famously
poet Walt Whitman. Frederick Law Olmsted, a famous landscape architect, was the highly
efficient executive director of the Sanitary Commission.States could use their own tax
money to support their troops, as Ohio did. Under the energetic leadership of Governor
David Tod, a War Democrat who won office on a coalition “Union Party” ticket with Republicans,
Ohio acted vigorously. Following the unexpected carnage at the battle of Shiloh in April 1862,
Ohio sent three steamboats to the scene as floating hospitals equipped with doctors,
nurses, and medical supplies. The state fleet expanded to 11 hospital ships, and the state
set up 12 local offices in main transportation nodes, to help Ohio soldiers moving back and
forth.The Christian Commission comprised 6,000 volunteers who aided chaplains in many ways.
For example, its agents distributed Bibles, delivered sermons, helped with sending letters
home, taught men to read and write, and set up camp libraries.The Army learned many lessons
and modernized its procedures, and medical science—especially surgery—made many advances.
In the long run, the wartime experiences of the numerous Union commissions modernized
public welfare, and set the stage for large—scale community philanthropy in America based on
fund raising campaigns and private donations.Additionally, women gained new public roles. For example,
Mary Livermore (1820–1905), the manager of the Chicago branch of the US Sanitary Commission,
used her newfound organizational skills to mobilize support for women’s suffrage after
the war. She argued that women needed more education and job opportunities to help them
fulfill their role of serving others.The Sanitary Commission collected enormous amounts of statistical
data, and opened up the problems of storing information for fast access and mechanically
searching for data patterns. The pioneer was John Shaw Billings (1838–1913). A senior
surgeon in the war, Billings built two of the world’s most important libraries, Library
of the Surgeon General’s Office (now the National Library of Medicine) and the New York Public
Library; he also figured out how to mechanically analyze data by turning it into numbers and
punching onto the computer punch card as developed by his student Herman Hollerith. Hollerith’s
company became International Business Machines (IBM) in 1911.===Prisoners of war===Both sides operated prison camps; they handled
about 400,000 captives, but many other prisoners were quickly released and never sent to camps.
The Record and Pension Office in 1901 counted 211,000 Northerners who were captured. In
1861–63 most were immediately paroled; after the parole exchange system broke down in 1863,
about 195,000 went to Confederate prison camps. Some tried to escape but few succeeded. By
contrast 464,000 Confederates were captured (many in the final days) and 215,000 imprisoned.
Over 30,000 Union and nearly 26,000 Confederate prisoners died in captivity. Just over 12%
of the captives in Northern prisons died, compared to 15.5% for Southern prisons.===Draft riots===Discontent with the 1863 draft law led to
riots in several cities and in rural areas as well. By far the most important were the
New York City draft riots of July 13 to July 16, 1863. Irish Catholic and other workers
fought police, militia and regular army units until the Army used artillery to sweep the
streets. Initially focused on the draft, the protests quickly expanded into violent attacks
on blacks in New York City, with many killed on the streets.Small-scale riots broke out
in ethnic German and Irish districts, and in areas along the Ohio River with many Copperheads.
Holmes County, Ohio was an isolated parochial area dominated by Pennsylvania Dutch and some
recent German immigrants. It was a Democratic stronghold and few men dared speak out in
favor of conscription. Local politicians denounced Lincoln and Congress as despotic, seeing the
draft law as a violation of their local autonomy. In June 1863, small-scale disturbances broke
out; they ended when the Army sent in armed units.==Economy==
The Union economy grew and prospered during the war while fielding a very large army and
navy. The Republicans in Washington had a Whiggish vision of an industrial nation, with
great cities, efficient factories, productive farms, all national banks, all knit together
by a modern railroad system, to be mobilized by the United States Military Railroad. The
South had resisted policies such as tariffs to promote industry and homestead laws to
promote farming because slavery would not benefit. With the South gone and Northern
Democrats weak, the Republicans enacted their legislation. At the same time they passed
new taxes to pay for part of the war and issued large amounts of bonds to pay for most of
the rest. Economic historians attribute the remainder of the cost of the war to inflation.
Congress wrote an elaborate program of economic modernization that had the dual purpose of
winning the war and permanently transforming the economy. For a list of the major industrialists
see .===Financing the war===
In 1860 the Treasury was a small operation that funded the small-scale operations of
the government through land sales and customs based on a low tariff. Peacetime revenues
were trivial in comparison with the cost of a full-scale war but the Treasury Department
under Secretary Salmon P. Chase showed unusual ingenuity in financing the war without crippling
the economy. Many new taxes were imposed and always with a patriotic theme comparing the
financial sacrifice to the sacrifices of life and limb. The government paid for supplies
in real money, which encouraged people to sell to the government regardless of their
politics. By contrast the Confederacy gave paper promissory notes when it seized property,
so that even loyal Confederates would hide their horses and mules rather than sell them
for dubious paper. Overall the Northern financial system was highly successful in raising money
and turning patriotism into profit, while the Confederate system impoverished its patriots.The
United States needed $3.1 billion to pay for the immense armies and fleets raised to fight
the Civil War—over $400 million just in 1862 alone.
Apart from tariffs, the largest revenue by far came from new excise taxes—a sort of
value added tax—that was imposed on every sort of manufactured item. Second came much
higher tariffs, through several Morrill tariff laws. Third came the nation’s first income
tax; only the wealthy paid and it was repealed at war’s end. Apart from taxes, the second major source
of income was government bonds. For the first time bonds in small denominations were sold
directly to the people, with publicity and patriotism as key factors, as designed by
banker Jay Cooke. State banks lost their power to issue banknotes. Only national banks could
do that and Chase made it easy to become a national bank; it involved buying and holding
federal bonds and financiers rushed to open these banks. Chase numbered them, so that
the first one in each city was the “First National Bank”. Third, the government printed
paper money called “greenbacks”. They led to endless controversy because they caused
inflation.The North’s most important war measure was perhaps the creation of a system of national
banks that provided a sound currency for the industrial expansion. Even more important,
the hundreds of new banks that were allowed to open were required to purchase government
bonds. Thereby the nation monetized the potential wealth represented by farms, urban buildings,
factories, and businesses, and immediately turned that money over to the Treasury for
war needs.====Tariffs====
Secretary Chase, though a long-time free-trader, worked with Morrill to pass a second tariff
bill in summer 1861, raising rates another 10 points in order to generate more revenues.
These subsequent bills were primarily revenue driven to meet the war’s needs, though they
enjoyed the support of protectionists such as Carey, who again assisted Morrill in the
bill’s drafting. The Morrill Tariff of 1861 was designed to raise revenue. The tariff
act of 1862 served not only to raise revenue but also to encourage the establishment of
factories free from British competition by taxing British imports. Furthermore, it protected
American factory workers from low paid European workers, and as a major bonus attracted tens
of thousands of those Europeans to immigrate to America for high wage factory and craftsman
jobs.Customs revenue from tariffs totaled $345 million from 1861 through 1865 or 43%
of all federal tax revenue.===Land grants===
The U.S. government owned vast amounts of good land (mostly from the Louisiana Purchase
of 1803 and the Oregon Treaty with Britain in 1846). The challenge was to make the land
useful to people and to provide the economic basis for the wealth that would pay off the
war debt. Land grants went to railroad construction companies to open up the western plains and
link up to California. Together with the free lands provided farmers by the Homestead Law
the low-cost farm lands provided by the land grants sped up the expansion of commercial
agriculture in the West. The 1862 Homestead Act opened up the public
domain lands for free. Land grants to the railroads meant they could sell tracts for
family farms (80 to 200 acres) at low prices with extended credit. In addition the government
sponsored fresh information, scientific methods and the latest techniques through the newly
established Department of Agriculture and the Morrill Land Grant College Act.===Agriculture===
Agriculture was the largest single industry and it prospered during the war. Prices were
high, pulled up by a strong demand from the army and from Britain (which depended on American
wheat for a fourth of its food imports). The war acted as a catalyst that encouraged the
rapid adoption of horse-drawn machinery and other implements. The rapid spread of recent
inventions such as the reaper and mower made the work force efficient, even as hundreds
of thousands of farmers were in the army. Many wives took their place and often consulted
by mail on what to do; increasingly they relied on community and extended kin for advice and
help.The Union used hundreds of thousands of animals. The Army had plenty of cash to
purchase them from farmers and breeders but especially in the early months the quality
was mixed. Horses were needed for cavalry and artillery. Mules pulled the wagons. The
supply held up, despite an unprecedented epidemic of glanders, a fatal disease that baffled
veterinarians. In the South, the Union army shot all the horses it did not need to keep
them out of Confederate hands.===Cotton trade===
The Treasury started buying cotton during the war, for shipment to Europe and northern
mills. The sellers were Southern planters who needed the cash, regardless of their patriotism.
The Northern buyers could make heavy profits, which annoyed soldiers like Ulysses Grant.
He blamed Jewish traders and expelled them from his lines in 1862 but Lincoln quickly
overruled this show of anti-semitism. Critics said the cotton trade helped the South, prolonged
the war and fostered corruption. Lincoln decided to continue the trade for fear that Britain
might intervene if its textile manufacturers were denied raw material. Another goal was
to foster latent Unionism in Southern border states. Northern textile manufacturers needed
cotton to remain in business and to make uniforms, while cotton exports to Europe provided an
important source of gold to finance the war.===Industrial and business leaders and military
Religion===The Protestant religion was quite strong in
the North in the 1860s. The United States Christian Commission sent agents into the
Army camps to provide psychological support as well as books, newspapers, food and clothing.
Through prayer, sermons and welfare operations, the agents ministered to soldiers’ spiritual
as well as temporal needs as they sought to bring the men to a Christian way of life.
Most churches made an effort to support their soldiers in the field and especially their
families back home. Much of the political rhetoric of the era had a distinct religious
tone.The Protestant clergy in America took a variety of positions. In general, the pietistic
denominations such as the Methodists, Northern Baptists and Congregationalists strongly supported
the war effort. Catholics, Episcopalians, Lutherans and conservative Presbyterians generally
avoided any discussion of the war, so it would not bitterly divide their membership. The
Quakers, while giving strong support to the abolitionist movement on a personal level,
refused to take a denominational position. Some clergymen who supported the Confederacy
were denounced as Copperheads, especially in the border regions.====Methodists====
Many Northerners had only recently become religious (following the Second Great Awakening)
and religion was a powerful force in their lives. No denomination was more active in
supporting the Union than the Methodist Episcopal Church. Carwardine argues that for many Methodists,
the victory of Lincoln in 1860 heralded the arrival of the kingdom of God in America.
They were moved into action by a vision of freedom for slaves, freedom from the persecutions
of godly abolitionists, release from the Slave Power’s evil grip on the American government
and the promise of a new direction for the Union. Methodists formed a major element of
the popular support for the Radical Republicans with their hard line toward the white South.
Dissident Methodists left the church. During Reconstruction the Methodists took the lead
in helping form Methodist churches for Freedmen and moving into Southern cities even to the
point of taking control, with Army help, of buildings that had belonged to the southern
branch of the church.The Methodist family magazine Ladies’ Repository promoted Christian
family activism. Its articles provided moral uplift to women and children. It portrayed
the War as a great moral crusade against a decadent Southern civilization corrupted by
slavery. It recommended activities that family members could perform in order to aid the
Union cause.===Family===
Historian Stephen M. Frank reports that what it meant to be a father varied with status
and age. He says most men demonstrated dual commitments as providers and nurturers and
believed that husband and wife had mutual obligations toward their children. The war
privileged masculinity, dramatizing and exaggerating, father-son bonds. Especially at five critical
stages in the soldier’s career (enlistment, blooding, mustering out, wounding and death)
letters from absent fathers articulated a distinctive set of 19th-century ideals of
There were numerous children’s magazines such as Merry’s Museum, The Student and Schoolmate,
Our Young Folks, The Little Pilgrim, Forrester’s Playmate, and The Little Corporal. They showed
a Protestant religious tone and “promoted the principles of hard work, obedience, generosity,
humility, and piety; trumpeted the benefits of family cohesion; and furnished mild adventure
stories, innocent entertainment, and instruction”. Their pages featured factual information and
anecdotes about the war along with related quizzes, games, poems, songs, short oratorical
pieces for “declamation”, short stories and very short plays that children could stage.
They promoted patriotism and the Union war aims, fostered kindly attitudes toward freed
slaves, blackened the Confederates cause, encouraged readers to raise money for war-related
humanitarian funds, and dealt with the death of family members. By 1866, the Milton Bradley
Company was selling “The Myriopticon: A Historical Panorama of the Rebellion” that allowed children
to stage a neighborhood show that would explain the war. It comprised colorful drawings that
were turned on wheels and included pre-printed tickets, poster advertisements, and narration
that could be read aloud at the show.Caring for war orphans was an important function
for local organizations as well as state and local government. A typical state was Iowa,
where the private “Iowa Soldiers Orphans Home Association” operated with funding from the
legislature and public donations. It set up orphanages in Davenport, Glenwood and Cedar
Falls. The state government funded pensions for the widows and children of soldiers. Orphan
schools like the Pennsylvania Soldiers’ Orphan School, also spoke of the broader public welfare
experiment that began as part of the aftermath of the Civil War. These orphan schools were
created to provide housing, care, and education for orphans of Civil War soldiers. They became
a matter of state pride, with orphans were paraded around at rallies to display the power
of a patriotic schooling.All the northern states had free public school systems before
the war but not the border states. West Virginia set up its system in 1863. Over bitter opposition
it established an almost-equal education for black children, most of whom were ex-slaves.
Thousands of black refugees poured into St. Louis, where the Freedmen’s Relief Society,
the Ladies Union Aid Society, the Western Sanitary Commission, and the American Missionary
Association (AMA) set up schools for their children.==Unionists in South and Border states==People loyal to the U.S. federal government
and opposed to secession living in the border states (where slavery was legal in 1861) were
termed Unionists. Confederates sometimes styled them “Homemade Yankees”. However, Southern
Unionists were not necessarily northern sympathizers and many of them, although opposing secession,
supported the Confederacy once it was a fact. East Tennessee never supported the Confederacy,
and Unionists there became powerful state leaders, including governors Andrew Johnson
and William G. Brownlow. Likewise, large pockets of eastern Kentucky were Unionist and helped
keep the state from seceding. Western Virginia, with few slaves and some industry, was so
strongly Unionist that it broke away and formed the new state of West Virginia.Still, nearly
120,000 Unionists from the South served in the Union Army during the Civil War and Unionist
regiments were raised from every Confederate state except South Carolina. Among such units
was the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment, which served as William Sherman’s personal escort
on his march to the sea. Southern Unionists were extensively used as anti-guerrilla paramilitary
forces. During Reconstruction many of these Unionists became “Scalawags”, a derogatory
term for Southern supporters of the Republican Party.===Guerrilla warfare===
Besides organized military conflict, the border states were beset by guerrilla warfare. In
such a bitterly divided state, neighbors frequently used the excuse of war to settle personal
grudges and took up arms against neighbors.====Missouri====Missouri was the scene of over 1000 engagements
between Union and Confederate forces, and uncounted numbers of guerrilla attacks and
raids by informal pro-Confederate bands. Western Missouri was the scene of brutal guerrilla
warfare during the Civil War. Roving insurgent bands such as Quantrill’s Raiders and the
men of Bloody Bill Anderson terrorized the countryside, striking both military installations
and civilian settlements. Because of the widespread attacks and the protection offered by Confederate
sympathizers, Federal leaders issued General Order No. 11 in 1863, and evacuated areas
of Jackson, Cass, and Bates counties. They forced the residents out to reduce support
for the guerrillas. Union cavalry could sweep through and track down Confederate guerrillas,
who no longer had places to hide and people and infrastructure to support them. On short
notice, the army forced almost 20,000 people, mostly women, children and the elderly, to
leave their homes. Many never returned and the affected counties were economically devastated
for years after the end of the war. Families passed along stories of their bitter experiences
down through several generations – Harry Truman’s grandparents were caught up in the
raids and he would tell of how they were kept in concentration camps.Some marauding units
became organized criminal gangs after the war. In 1882, the bank robber and ex-Confederate
guerrilla Jesse James was killed in Saint Joseph. Vigilante groups appeared in remote
areas where law enforcement was weak, to deal with the lawlessness left over from the guerrilla
warfare phase. For example, the Bald Knobbers were the term for several law-and-order vigilante
groups in the Ozarks. In some cases, they too turned to illegal gang activity.====Kentucky====In response to the growing problem of locally
organized guerrilla campaigns throughout 1863 and 1864, in June 1864, Maj. Gen. Stephen
G. Burbridge was given command over the state of Kentucky. This began an extended period
of military control that would last through early 1865, beginning with martial law authorized
by President Abraham Lincoln. To pacify Kentucky, Burbridge rigorously suppressed disloyalty
and used economic pressure as coercion. His guerrilla policy, which included public execution
of four guerrillas for the death of each unarmed Union citizen, caused the most controversy.
After a falling out with Governor Thomas E. Bramlette, Burbridge was dismissed in February
1865. Confederates remembered him as the “Butcher of Kentucky”.==Union states==
Washington, D.CList of Wikipedia articles on Union states and major cities: * Border states with slavery in 1861
†Had two state governments, one Unionist one Confederate, both claiming to be the legitimate
government of their state. Kentucky and Missouri’s Confederate governments never had significant
control of their state. West Virginia separated from Virginia and
became part of the Union during the war, on June 20, 1863. Nevada also joined the Union
during the war, becoming a state on October 31, 1864.===Union territories===
The Union controlled territories in April 1861 were:
Colorado Territory Dakota Territory
Indian Territory (disputed with the Confederacy) Nebraska Territory
Nevada Territory (became a state in 1864) New Mexico Territory
Arizona Territory (split off in 1863) Utah Territory
Washington Territory Idaho Territory (split off in 1863)
Montana Territory (split off in 1864)The Indian Territory saw its own civil war, as the major
tribes held slaves and endorsed the Confederacy.==See also==
American Civil War Confederate States of America
American Civil War prison camps==
Cashin, Joan E. ed. The War Was You and Me: Civilians in the American Civil War (2001),
Fellman, Michael et al. This Terrible War: The Civil War and its Aftermath (2nd ed. 2007),
544 page university textbook Flaherty, Jane. “‘The Exhausted Condition
of the Treasury’ on the Eve of the Civil War,” Civil War History, Volume 55, Number 2, June
2009, pp. 244–277 in Project MUSE Ford, Lacy K., ed. A Companion to the Civil
War and Reconstruction. (2005). 518 pp. 23 essays by scholars excerpt and text search
Gallman, J. Matthew. The North Fights the Civil War: The Home Front (1994), survey
Gallman, J. Matthew. Northerners at War: Reflections on the Civil War Home Front (2010), essays
on specialized issues Heidler, David and Jeanne Heidler, eds, Encyclopedia
of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2002) 2740pp
McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988), 900 page survey;
Pulitzer prize Nevins, Allan. War for the Union, an 8-volume
set (1947–1971). the most detailed political, economic and military narrative; by Pulitzer
Prize winner; vol 1–4 cover 1848–61; vol 5. The Improvised War, 1861–1862; 6. War
Becomes Revolution, 1862–1863; 7. The Organized War, 1863–1864; 8. The Organized War to
Victory, 1864–1865 Resch, John P. et al., Americans at War: Society,
Culture and the Homefront vol 2: 1816–1900 (2005)===Politics===
Bogue, Allan G. The Congressman’s Civil War (1989)
Carman, Harry J. and Reinhard H. Luthin. Lincoln and the Patronage (1943), details on each
state Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln (1999) the
best biography; excerpt and text search Engle, Stephen D. Gathering to Save a Nation:
Lincoln and the Union’s War Governors (u of North Carolina Press, 2016). 725 pp.
Fish, Carl Russell. “Lincoln and the Patronage,” American Historical Review (1902) 8#1 pp.
53–69 in JSTOR Gallagher, Gary W. The Union War (2011), emphasizes
that the North fought primarily for nationalism and preservation of the Union
Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln (2005)
excerpts and text search, on Lincoln’s cabinet Green, Michael S. Freedom, Union, and Power:
Lincoln and His Party during the Civil War. (2004). 400 pp.
Harris, William C. Lincoln and the Union Governors (Southern Illinois University Press, 2013)
162 pp. Hesseltine, William B. Lincoln and the War
Governors (1948) Kleppner, Paul. The Third Electoral System,
1853–1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Culture (1979), statistical study of voting
patterns. Lawson, Melinda. Patriot Fires: Forging a
New American Nationalism in the Civil War North (University Press of Kansas, 2002).
Luthin, Reinhard H. The first Lincoln campaign (1944) on election of 1860
Neely, Mark. The Divided Union: Party Conflict in the Civil War North (2002)
Paludan, Philip S. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (1994), thorough treatment of Lincoln’s
administration Rawley, James A. The Politics of Union: Northern
Politics during the Civil War (1974). Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation
of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997) online edition
Silbey, Joel. A Respectable Minority: The Democratic Party in the Civil War Era (1977).
Smith, Adam I. P. No Party Now: Politics in the Civil War North (Oxford University Press,
2006) Smith, Michael Thomas. The Enemy Within: Fears
of Corruption in the Civil War North (2011) online review
Weber, Jennifer L. Copperheads: The Rise and Fall of Lincoln’s Opponents in the North (2006)
excerpt and text search===
Constitutional and legal===Hyman Harold. “A More Perfect Union “: The
Impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on the Constitution (1973)
Neely; Mark E., Jr. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (1991).
Neely, Jr., Mark E. Lincoln and the Triumph of the Nation: Constitutional Conflict in
the American Civil War (U of North Carolina Press; 2011); 408 covers the U.S. and the
Confederate constitutions and their role in the conflict.
Paludan, Phillip S. “The American Civil War Considered as a Crisis in Law and Order,”
American Historical Review, Vol. 77, No. 4 (October 1972), pp. 1013–1034 in JSTOR===Economic===
Brandes, Stuart. Warhogs: A History of War Profits in America (1997), pp 67–88; a scholarly
history of the munitions industry; concludes profits were not excessive
Clark, Jr., John E. Railroads in the Civil War: The Impact of Management on Victory and
Defeat (2004) Cotterill, R. S. “The Louisville and Nashville
Railroad 1861–1865,” American Historical Review (1924) 29#4 pp. 700–715 in JSTOR
Fite, Emerson David. Social and industrial conditions in the North during the Civil War
(1910) online edition, old but still quite useful
Hammond, Bray. “The North’s Empty Purse, 1861–1862,” American Historical Review, October 1961,
Vol. 67 Issue 1, pp 1–18 in JSTOR Hill, Joseph A. “The Civil War Income Tax,”
Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 8, No. 4 (July 1894), pp. 416–452 in JSTOR; appendix
in JSTOR Merk, Frederick. Economic history of Wisconsin
during the Civil War decade (1916) online edition
Smith, Michael Thomas. The Enemy Within: Fears of Corruption in the Civil War North (2011)
details on Treasury Department, government contracting, and the cotton trade
Weber, Thomas. The northern railroads in the Civil War, 1861–1865 (1999)
Wilson, Mark R. The Business of Civil War: Military Mobilization and the State, 1861–1865.
(2006). 306 pp. excerpt and text search===
Intellectual and cultural===Aaron, Daniel. The Unwritten War: American
Writers and the Civil War (2nd ed. 1987) Brownlee, Peter John et al. eds. Home Front:
Daily Life in the Civil War North (2013) online review
Foote, Lorien and Kanisorn Wongsrichanalai. So Conceived and So Dedicated: Intellectual
Life in the Civil War Era North (2015) Gallman, J. Matthew. Defining Duty in the
Civil War: Personal Choice, Popular Culture, and the Union Home Front (2015) how civilians
defined their roles. online review Fredrickson, George M. The inner Civil War:
Northern intellectuals and the crisis of the Union (1993)
Stevenson, Louise A. The Victorian Homefront: American Thought and Culture, 1860–1880
(1991). Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in
the Literature of the American Civil War (1962)===Medical===
Adams, George Worthington. Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the
Civil War (1996), 253pp; excerpt and text search
Clarke, Frances M. War Stories: Suffering and Sacrifice in the Civil War North (University
of Chicago Press, 2012) Grant, S-M. “‘Mortal in this season’: Union
Surgeons and the Narrative of Medical Modernisation in the American Civil War.” Social History
of Medicine (2014): hku010. Maxwell, William Quentin. Lincoln’s Fifth
Wheel: The Political History of the U.S. Sanitary Commission (1956) online edition
Schroeder-Lein, Glenna R. The Encyclopedia of Civil War Medicine (2012) excerpt and text
search. 456pp===Race===
McPherson, James M. Marching Toward Freedom: The Negro’s Civil War (1982); first edition
was The Negro’s Civil War: How American Negroes Felt and Acted During the War for the Union
(1965), Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the Civil
War (1953), standard history excerpt and text search
Voegeli, V. Jacque. Free But Not Equal: The Midwest and the Negro during the Civil War
(1967).===Religion and ethnicity===
Brodrecht, Grant R. “Our Country: Northern Evangelicals and the Union during the Civil
War and Reconstruction.” Ph.D. diss., University of Notre Dame, 2008.
Burton, William L. Melting Pot Soldiers: The Union Ethnic Regiments (1998)
Kamphoefner, Walter D. “German-Americans and Civil War Politics: A Reconsideration of the
Ethnocultural Thesis.” Civil War History 37 (1991): 232–246.
Kleppner, Paul. The Third Electoral System, 1853–1892: Parties, Voters, and Political
Culture (1979). Miller, Randall M., Harry S. Stout and Charles
Reagan Wilson, eds. Religion and the American Civil War (1998) online edition
Miller, Robert J. Both Prayed to the Same God: Religion and Faith in the American Civil
War. (2007). 260pp Moorhead, James. American Apocalypse: Yankee
Protestants and the Civil War, 1860–1869 (1978).
Noll, Mark A. The Civil War as a Theological Crisis. (2006). 199 pp.
Stout, Harry S. Upon the Altar of the Nation: A Moral History of the Civil War. (2006).
544 pp.===Social and demographic history===
Brownlee, Peter John, et al. Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North (University of
Chicago Press, 2013) 193 pp. heavily illustrated. Morehouse, Maggi M. and Zoe Trodd, eds. Civil
War America: A Social and Cultural History with Primary Sources (2013), 29 short essays
by scholars excerpt Raus, Edmund J. Banners South: Northern Community
at War (2011) about Cortland New York Vinovskis, Maris A., ed. Toward a Social History
of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays (1991), new social history; quantitative studies
Vinovskis, Maris A., ed. “Have Social Historians Lost the Civil War? Some Preliminary Demographic
Speculations,” Journal of American History Vol. 76, No. 1 (June 1989), pp. 34–58 in
JSTOR Veit, Helen Zoe, ed. Food in the Civil War
Era: The North (Michigan State University Press, 2014)===Soldiers===
Geary James W. We Need Men: The Union Draft in the Civil War (1991).
Geary James W. “Civil War Conscription in the North: A Historiographical Review.” Civil
War History 32 (September 1986): 208–228. Hams, Emily J. “Sons and Soldiers: Deerfield,
Massachusetts, and the Civil War,” Civil War History 30 (June 1984): 157–71
Hess, Earl J. “The 12th Missouri Infantry: A Socio-Military Profile of a Union Regiment,”
Missouri Historical Review 76 (October 1981): 53–77.
Cimbala, Paul A. and Randall M. Miller, eds. Union Soldiers and the Northern Home Front:
Wartime Experiences, Postwar Adjustments. (2002)
Current, Richard N. (1994). Lincoln’s Loyalists: Union Soldiers from the Confederacy. Oxford,
England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508465-9. McPherson, James. For Cause and Comrades:
Why Men Fought in the Civil War (1998), based on letters and diaries
Miller, William J. Training of an Army: Camp Curtin and the North’s Civil War (1990)
Mitchell; Reid. The Vacant Chair. The Northern Soldier Leaves Home (1993).
Rorabaugh, William J. “Who Fought for the North in the Civil War? Concord, Massachusetts,
Enlistments,” Journal of American History 73 (December 1986): 695–701 in JSTOR
Roseboom, Eugene H. The Civil War Era, 1850–1873 (1944), Ohio
Scott, Sean A. “‘Earth Has No Sorrow That Heaven Cannot Cure’: Northern Civilian Perspectives
on Death and Eternity during the Civil War,” Journal of Social History (2008) 41:843–866
Wiley, Bell I. The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (1952)===State and local===
Tucker, Spencer, ed. American Civil War: A State-by-State Encyclopedia (2 vol 2015) 1019pp
excerpt Aley, Ginette et al. eds. Union Heartland:
The Midwestern Home Front during the Civil War (2013)
Bak, Richard. A Distant Thunder: Michigan in the Civil War. (2004). 239 pp.
Baker, Jean H. The Politics of Continuity: Maryland Political Parties from 1858 to 1870
(1973) Baum, Dale. The Civil War Party System: The
Case of Massachusetts, 1848–1876 (1984) Bradley, Erwin S. The Triumph of Militant
Republicanism: A Study of Pennsylvania and Presidential Politics, 1860–1872 (1964)
Castel, Albert. A Frontier State at War: Kansas, 1861–1865 (1958)
Cole, Arthur Charles. The Era of the Civil War 1848–1870 (1919) on Illinois
Coulter, E. Merton. The Civil War and Readjustment in Kentucky (1926),
Current, Richard N. The History of Wisconsin: The Civil War Era, 1848–1873 (1976).
Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio’s war: the Civil War in documents (2006), primary sources excerpt
and text search Dilla, Harriette M. Politics of Michigan,
1865–1878 (Columbia University Press, 1912) online at Google books
Gallman, Matthew J. Mastering Wartime: A Social History of Philadelphia During the Civil War.
(1990) Hall, Susan G. Appalachian Ohio and the Civil
War, 1862–1863 (2008) Holzer, Harold. State of the Union: New York
and the Civil War (2002) Essays by scholars Hubbard, Mark. Illinois’s War: The Civil War
in Documents (2012) excerpt and text search Karamanski, Theodore J. Rally ‘Round the Flag:
Chicago and the Civil War (1993). Leech, Margaret. Reveille in Washington, 1860–1865
(1941), Pulitzer Prize McKay Ernest A. The Civil War and New York
City (1990) Miller, Richard F. ed. States at War, Volume
1: A Reference Guide for Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,
and Vermont in the Civil War (2013) excerpt * Miller, Richard F. ed. States at War, Volume
2: A Reference Guide for New York in the Civil War (2014) excerpt
Nation, Richard F. and Stephen E. Towne. Indiana’s War: The Civil War in Documents (2009), primary
sources excerpt and text search Niven, John. Connecticut for the Union: The
Role of the State in the Civil War (Yale University Press, 1965)
O’Connor, Thomas H. Civil War Boston (1999) Parrish, William E. A History of Missouri,
Volume III: 1860 to 1875 (1973) (ISBN 0-8262-0148-2) Pierce, Bessie. A History of Chicago, Volume
II: From Town to City 1848–1871 (1940) Schouler, William (1868). A History of Massachusetts
in the Civil War. Boston: E.P. Dutton & Co. OCLC 2662693.
Ponce, Pearl T. Kansas’s War: The Civil War in Documents (2011) excerpt and text search
Raus, Edmund J. Banners South: Northern Community at War (2011) about Cortland New York
Roseboom, Eugene. The Civil War Era, 1850-1873, History of Ohio, vol. 4 (1944) online, Detailed
scholarly history Siddali, Silvana R. Missouri’s War: The Civil
War in Documents (2009), primary sources excerpt and text search
Stampp, Kenneth M. Indiana politics during the Civil War (1949)
Taylor, Paul. “Old Slow Town”: Detroit during the Civil War (Detroit: Wayne State University
Press, 2013). x, 248 pp. Thornbrough, Emma Lou. Indiana in the Civil
War Era, 1850–1880 (1965) Ware, Edith E. Political Opinion in Massachusetts
during the Civil War and Reconstruction, (1916). full text online===Women and family===
Anderson, J. L. “The Vacant Chair on the Farm: Soldier Husbands, Farm Wives, and the Iowa
Home Front, 1861–1865,” Annals of Iowa (2007) 66: 241–265
Attie, Jeanie. Patriotic Toil: Northern Women and the American Civil War (1998). 294 pp.
Bahde, Thomas. “‘I never wood git tired of wrighting to you.'” Journal of Illinois History
(2009). 12:129-55 Giesberg, Judith. Army at Home: Women and
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Giesberg, Judith Ann. “From Harvest Field to Battlefield: Rural Pennsylvania Women and
the U.S. Civil War,” Pennsylvania History (2005). 72: 159–191
Harper, Judith E. Women during the Civil War: An Encyclopedia. (2004). 472 pp.
Marten, James. Children for the Union: The War Spirit on the Northern Home Front. Ivan
R. Dee, 2004. 209 pp. Massey, Mary. Bonnet Brigades: American Women
and the Civil War (1966), excellent overview North and South; reissued as Women in the
Civil War (1994) Giesberg, Judith. “Mary Elizabeth Massey and
the Civil War Centennial.” Civil War History 61.4 (2015): 400-406. online
Rodgers, Thomas E. “Hoosier Women and the Civil War Home Front,” Indiana Magazine of
History 97#2 (2001), pp. 105–128 in JSTOR Silber, Nina. Daughters of the Union: Northern
Women Fight the Civil War. (Harvard UP, 2005). 332 pp.
Venet, Wendy Hamand. A Strong-Minded Woman: The Life of Mary Livermore. (U. of Massachusetts
Press, 2005). 322 pp.===Primary sources===
American Annual Cyclopaedia for 1861 (N.Y.: Appleton’s, 1864), an extensive collection
of reports on each state, Congress, military activities and many other topics; annual issues
from 1861 to 1901 Appletons’ annual cyclopedia and register
of important events: Embracing political, military, and ecclesiastical affairs; public
documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture,
and mechanical industry, Volume 3 1863 (1864), thorough coverage of the events of 1863
Angle, Paul M. and Earl Schenck Miers, eds. Tragic Years, 1860–1865: A Documentary History
of the American Civil War – Vol. 1 1960 online edition
Carter, Susan B., ed. The Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition (5
vols), 2006; online at many universities Commager, Henry Steele, ed. The Blue and the
Gray. The Story of the Civil War as Told by Participants. (1950), excerpts from primary
sources Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio’s War: The Civil
War in Documents. (2007). 244 pp. Freidel Frank, ed. Union Pamphlets of the
Civil War, 1861–1865 (2 vol. 1967) Hesseltine, William B. ed.; The Tragic Conflict:
The Civil War and Reconstruction (1962), excerpts from primary sources online edition
Marten, James, ed.. Civil War America: Voices from the Home Front. (2003). 346 pp.
Risley, Ford, ed. The Civil War: Primary Documents on Events from 1860 to 1865. (2004). 320 pp.
Siddali, Silvana R. Missouri’s War: The Civil War in Documents (2009), 256pp excerpt and
text search Sizer, Lyde Cullen and Jim Cullen, ed. The
Civil War Era: An Anthology of Sources. (2005). 434 pp.
Smith, Charles Winston and Charles Judah, eds. Life in the North during the Civil War:
A Source History (1966) Voss-Hubbard, Mark, ed. Illinois’s War: The
Civil War in Documents (2013) online review diaries, journals. reminiscences
The Peoples Contest: A Civil War era digital archiving project”, access to primary sources
from Pennsylvania, especially newspapers and other resources==External links==
Lincoln Administration links Civil War Soldiers
Abraham Lincoln online, texts “Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North”
visual exhibit at the “Financial Measures,” by Nicolay and Hay (1889)
“Lincoln Reelected,” by Nicolay and Hay (1889) “First Plans for Emancipation,” by Nicolay
and Hay (1889) “Emancipation Announced,” by Nicolay and Hay

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